Sunday, May 19, 2019

Develop, Expand Creative Industry — President
20 MAY, 2019

President Mnangagwa gets a feel of a chair made from used tyres during the National Culture Week launch at the Glamis Arena in Harare on Saturday. Looking on are Youth, Sport, Arts and Recreation Acting Minister Kazembe Kazembe (in sunglasses) and Minister of State for Harare Metropolitan Province Senator Oliver Chidawu (right). — (Picture by Tawanda Mudimu)

Godwin Muzari Arts and Lifestyle Editor

Government is committed to working with the arts and culture industry to ensure stakeholders in the sector contribute to national economic development in various ways, the President has said.

Speaking at the official launch of Culture Week at the Glamis Arena on Saturday, President Mnangagwa said the development of suitable infrastructure to expand the creative industry will be done with “greater urgency”.

“My Government is committed to working with the arts, culture and heritage sector in order to position its cultural and creative industries as vital cogs in the recovery machinery of our economy. Every player in the arts and culture sector is important,” he said.

The President said the sector is important in creating jobs and promoting tourism, which are key elements in economic development.

“The nation will yield multi-faceted benefits such as creation of jobs, expansion of our tourism and earning of foreign currency. As such, development of suitable infrastructure within our communities to grow the creative industries will be attended to with greater urgency in the Second Republic.

“It is therefore pleasing to note that some organisations are already creating synergies to market Zimbabwe as a business destination on matters of arts and culture as well as creating markets for consumption of these goods and services.”

He gave an example of how local cultural products like traditional music and dance are popular in the West. He said some countries in the West have imposed sanctions on the nation, but they continue consuming and enjoying our arts and cultural products.

The President urged stakeholders in creative industries to fully play their roles to realise benefits from their works and also contribute to national development.

“I urge you all to interrogate the economic maze and determine what role you should play in making the value chain well-oiled, functional, and beneficial to your industry, yourselves and the nation as a whole.

“I encourage the Ministry (of Youth, Sport, Arts and Recreation) to continue to facilitate the necessary environment that is needed by artists to produce, package, and distribute their goods and services in a manner that enriches all, without prejudicing their creative impulses and energies.”

He condemned piracy and said the practice must be stopped so that people work in unison “respecting each other’s ideas, intellectual property and copyrights for a viable and creative sector”.

The President urged all Zimbabweans to share and display their cultural diversity. He said the education sector must work towards promotion of cultural heritage.

“I challenge the entire education sector to play a positive part in preservation and promotion of our cultural heritage through research and diversified practice.”

He challenged young artistes to take a leaf from the lives of legends like Dr Oliver Mtukudzi, Charles Mungoshi and Dorothy Masuka who were cultural ambassadors.

Culture Week is running under the theme “African Royalty: Our Heritage” and events to celebrate the week are being held throughout the country until May 25.

At the launch ceremony, players in the arts and culture sector exhibited their products and services while a number of performers entertained guests.

Various traditional dance groups as well as musicians like Alick Macheso, Janet Manyowa, Dziva Rembira and Jah Signal performed at the event.
SACP Western Cape Says "Return the Money! ANC is Not for Sale!! ANC Belongs to the Working Class and the Poor Majority!!"
15 May 2019

The South African Communist Party in the Western Cape welcomes the suspension of the Provincial Treasurer of the ANC comrade Maurencia Gillion. The Party in the province supports the call to return the money donated by Dr Iqbal Surve.

As the Party, we are surprised and worried by the defiance of comrade Gillion by acting against the decision taken on the 7th May 2019 to return the money as donated by Dr Surve. Therefore, as part of the post-election assessment, we call for the forensic auditing of the ANC organisational finances.

Furthermore, the SACP believes whilst the movement was focusing on the campaign, some elements were busy sabotaging the good work. Hence, their contribution was to fight for the control and distribution of election resources for purposes of funding their factional activities.

It is against this background, there is a need to probe the reasons why on Election Day in the Metro hard working volunteers were given stale food.

Issued by SACP Western Cape


Benson Ngqentsu: SACP Western Cape Provincial Secretary
Mobile: 082 796 6400
Statement on the Conclusion of South Africa’s Sixth Democratic General Election
12 May 2019

Let’s turn South Africa around – The people have spoken!

The South African Communist Party accepts the outcomes of our country’s sixth democratic general election held in May 2019 as announced by the Independent Electoral Commission last night, Saturday 11 May 2019. The people have once again given the ANC a mandate to lead our country. The SACP expresses its sincere gratitude to all South Africans who voted the ANC.

The victory was made possible also by the tireless and unambiguous campaigning efforts of the members, supporters and volunteers of the SACP, Cosatu and its affiliates, Sanco, the leagues and desks of Alliance components, and student formations Sasco and Cosas, as well as a wide range of supportive South Africans, over and above the ANC. The SACP expresses its appreciation for the unequivocal efforts. The SACP further wishes to thank all South Africans who exercised their rights as enshrined in our hard-won Constitution, who participated in the election and made it successful. 

Over the past several years our country was driven to the brink. Corrupt elements in the state, in public enterprises and other public entities, in our movement and other political organisations, and in the private sector coalesced and pushed South Africa to the very edge. Our hard fought-for democratic gains, our national achievements, were undermined. The negatives overwhelmed the positives. These are among the key reasons why the ANC experienced another electoral decline.

The ANC-led government however began turning the corner against governance decay in 2018 under the leadership of Comrade Cyril Ramaphosa as the President of the ANC and the Republic. To this end the Alliance and progressive South Africans, over and above the ANC on its own, played an exceptionally important role. South Africa’s sixth democratic general election was therefore not an ordinary election. It was a key moment in the ongoing struggle to achieve a turnaround and reposition our country towards a successful national transformation, development and shared prosperity. To this end the importance of the democratic mandate received by the ANC cannot be overemphasised.

It is a mandate to intensify and complete the work to dismantle the networks of state capture and other forms of corruption, as well as defeat their fight back. This is a mandate to move the national democratic revolution, our national transformation programme, on to a second, more radical phase. The immediate strategic task of this phase of our revolution is to complete our liberation and achieve social emancipation. This requires radical structural transformation to build a people’s economy, create decent work and systematically eradicate economic inequalities, unemployment, poverty and social insecurity.

The working class has a crucial role to play and needs to build unity and systematically develop and deepen its class leadership of the national democratic revolution to make the programme successful. The political centrality of the Alliance to the national democratic revolution, as well as its reconfiguration to play its organisational leadership role effectively as a governing Alliance is important to ensure that the entire progressive thrust of the ANC’s sixth democratic general election manifesto is coherently articulated into government policy and implemented successfully.

The SACP will conduct a detailed analysis of the election process as a whole as well as its outcomes to unpack all its dimensions comprehensively and elaborate other key organisational and political tasks for the Party and the working class at large.



Alex Mohubetswane Mashilo
National Spokesperson & Head of Communications
Mobile: +27 76 316 9816
Skype: MashiloAM


Hlengiwe Nkonyane:
Communications Officer - Media Liaison Services, Digital and Social Media Co-ordinator
Mobile: +27 79 384 6550


Office: +2711 339 3621/2
Twitter: SACP1921
Facebook Page: South African Communist Party
SACP Ustream TV Channel:
SACP Gauteng Humbled by Resounding ANC Election Victory Against All Odds
12 May 2019

The South African Communist Party (SACP) in Gauteng Province is humbled by the resilience, courage and decisiveness of the working class and revolutionary people to defend the National Democratic Revolution (NDR) in our province. Non-racialism, non-sexism, democracy and unity, as the only scientific basis of resolving class contradictions, have been defended against backwardness, racism and degenerate politics.

This election victory means that the ANC, in our province, is given yet another full mandate to constitute the 6th administration and implement the ANC election manifesto. We are confident that the Alliance and the new administration will deeply internalise and appreciate this uncompromising militancy by the working class and revolutionary people.

We believe that this electoral victory calls for a renewed approach to unity of the Alliance, strong organisation on the ground and government that will continue to consolidate its service delivery achievements and keep close contact with the people, through the Ntirhisano Community Outreach program.

We call on the new administration to remain unrelenting in the fight against corruption, corporate capture of the state and the malice of looting in our province. We believe that it was in this powerful posture for clean administration that the working class trusted and will continue to trust the ANC.

We can say without fear of contradiction that we have heard the revolutionary voice of the working class, echoed loud and clear at the ballot box, and dare not take this revolutionary voice for granted.

We thank the working class and revolutionary people for defending the NDR against an extremely unfavourable balance of class forces that constitute a unique reality on the terrain of class struggle in our province.

We entered this election on the back-foot due to the scientific truth that a big space, population, resources and state power in the Cities of Tshwane and Johannesburg are currently under the direct control of the imploding coalition and collusion of reactionary forces. In other words, the results of the elections could have been worse and even more severe. It is precisely in this context that we confidently say, this was a decisive, overwhelming and resounding election victory.

We are humbled that the economic power house of our country and the continent remains firmly in the hands of the revolutionary Alliance, guided by the Freedom Charter, that is, the only scientific basis for resolving the historic legacy of Colonialism of a Special Type (CST) and direct solid basis to build socialism in our country.

We will in due course deploy our Marxist-Leninist tools of class analysis to deep-dive into the class realities and complexities of the election outcomes and pave a clear way-forward to consolidate the NDR.

Considering all the odds and the balance sheet of class power in our province in this election campaign, we are much better, stronger, motivated and rejuvenated to work even harder to ensure that the NDR stays solidly on track.

Issued by the SACP Gauteng Province
Explosion Hits Tourist Bus in Egypt's Giza
Ahram Online
Sunday 19 May 2019

A blast hit a tourist bus carrying 25 South Africans near the Giza pyramids on Sunday, injuring a number of people, according to the interior ministry.

Security sources said earlier that at least 14 people were injured in the explosion near the Ring Road in Giza.

“A device exploded and shattered the glass of a bus carrying 25 people from South Africa,” the ministry said on its official Facebook page.

Some people, including four Egyptians in a nearby car, were wounded by broken glass from the two vehicles, state TV said in a video shared by the ministry.

The wounded are receiving treatment, it added. No deaths have been reported.

The blast took place near the famed Giza pyramids.

No damage has been caused to the museum from the explosion, which took place 50 metres from its fence and more than 400 metres from the museum building, the antiquities ministry said in a statement.

No group has claimed responsibility for the attack.

The attack comes nearly five months after three Vietnamese tourists and their Egyptian tour guide were killed when a bomb hit their tourist bus as it was travelling on El-Maryoutiya Street in Giza's Haram district.

Egypt has responded to terrorist attacks over the past few years with raids on terrorist hideouts nationwide, including a concentrated offensive in North Sinai to combat terrorism.

Egypt has been battling an Islamist militancy that spiked following the 2013 ouster of Islamist president Mohamed Morsi. The violence has mainly been focused in the border North Sinai region, but has occasionally extended to the mainland.

In February 2018, the army launched an extensive security operation to crush militants.
Egypt Tourist Bus Explosion, 17 Injured Near Giza Pyramids
At least 17 people have been killed in an explosion targeted at a tourist bus in Egypt on Sunday. The incident occured near the Grand Egyptian Museum, next to the pyramids of Giza.

South African and Egyptian tourist were among the injured in the attack, according to security and medical sources.The attack comes just over a month before the start of the African Cup of Nations in Egypt from 21 June to 20 July.

The tourism industry, crucial to the Egyptian economy, has been severely affected by political instability and attacks following the 2011 revolt that led to the fall of President Hosni Mubarak after 30 years in power.

From 14.7 million in 2010, the number of visitors fell to 8.3 million in 2017.
Sudan - Military and Protest Leaders Resume Negotiations
The military and leaders of the protest in Sudan resumed Sunday dialogue on the composition of a future transitional sovereign council, after a warning from Islamists on the need to keep Islamic law as the source of legislation.

The leaders of the protest want at all costs a civilian to lead this future key institution, after an urgent call from the international community for the negotiations to lead to a transition “truly civilian-led”.

“The new round of negotiations between the Transitional Military Council and the Alliance for Freedom and Change (ALC), began” in the evening, the Military Council said in a statement.

Spearheading the protest, the LAC had earlier indicated that the negotiations would focus on the distribution, between army and protest leaders, and the seats of the Sovereign Council as well as on its future leader.

Negotiations were suspended on Wednesday by the Military Council led by General Abdel Fattah al-Burhane, who took power after President Omar al-Bashir’s dismissal and arrest on April 11.

The military demanded the removal of the barricades installed by demonstrators in Khartoum.

Since April 6, thousands of Sudanese have been camping outside army headquarters in the Sudanese capital to demand the transfer of power to a civilian administration.

On Friday, demonstrators dismantled several of these barricades.
SADC Plays Influential Role in Reforming Security Sector
Southern Times
May 11, 2019

JOHANNESBURG - THE Southern African Development Community
(SADC), hailed as the most stable regional bloc on the continent, is
poised to play a major role in security sector reforms and
eventually enable Africa to attain its target of ensuring eternal peace in
the upcoming years.

South Africa, with its lofty status as a model for democracy on the
continent, is lobbying the bloc to ensure all countries in the vast
continent establish offices of the Military Ombudsman, each responsible for
military oversight in their respective nations.

It is the only country in Africa to establish such an office, which was
created in 2012 to investigate complaints brought by members of the
public against South African National Defence Force (SANDF) as well as
probe grievances by current and former members of the force.

“The office will continue to lobby support and collaborate with other
ombud institutions and the defence sector in Africa,” said Lieutenant-General Temba
Matanzima, the outgoing South African military ombudsman.

He was speaking at the recent South African Military Ombud Annual meeting held
under the theme, “The Role of Oversight over the Armed Forces in the
Contemporary African Context.”

Matanzima said the lobbying was especially in the SADC region, where
they were sharing best practice and striving for the creation of
military ombudsman institutions or mechanisms on the continent through
cross-border cooperation and capacity building.

“This African footprint initiative is taking forward the recommendations
made during the tenth International Conference of Ombud Institutions for
the Armed Forces (10ICOAF) Africa Day Symposium in October 2018,”
Matanzima said.

The symposium was also held in South Africa.

Matanzima said ombudsman institutions were critical to a peaceful Africa and
should serve as independent and impartial institutions.

Kebby Maphatsoe, the South African Deputy Minister of Defence and
Military Veterans, said it was crucial to have oversight over the
military because the uniformed forces were generally a “state within a

“There is nothing one cannot find within the military establishment
anywhere and in many parts of the world. The military, as the guardian
of the state, also needs to be becomes ‘who guards the
guards’ hence the establishment of institutions of oversight such as the
Military Ombud,” Maphatsoe said.

Ambassador Smail Chergui, the African Union (AU) Commissioner for Peace
and Security, said the organisation advised member states to commit
themselves to strengthening instruments for democratic oversight of the
security sector.

“These oversight instruments may be country-specific while seeking to
promote and uphold good governance principles, the rule of law, respect
for the legal framework, including human rights and gender equality,”
Chergui said.

The AU is on a mission to “silence the guns” in the coming years.

– CAJ News
South Africa to Explore for Oil in South Sudan
By Southern Times
May 14, 2019

JUBA -  South Africa’s state-owned oil company Strategic Fuel Fund (SFF) will own and operate Block B2 after signing an exploration and production sharing agreement (EPSA) with South Sudan.

In 2018, South Africa agreed to invest $1billion into South Sudan’s energy infrastructure, which has the third-largest oil reserves in sub-Saharan Africa, estimated at 3.5 billion barrels, with just 30 percent of the country explored.

The deal – which is strategic for South Africa as an energy consumer – will see Block B2 operated by the state-owned SFF, the Ministry of Petroleum and Nilepet, the national oil company of South Sudan.

This is the second EPSA signed since South Sudan gained independence in 2012 and shows progress for the country’s oil industry as production resumes at existing oilfields and new exploration begins.

South Sudan is an established, world-class petroleum producing region, whose territory includes a large part of the Cretaceous rift basin system that has proved petroliferous in Chad and Niger as well as Sudan. It currently produces 160,000 bopd, and aims to increase production capacity to 270,000 bopd by the end of the year. The country has the third-largest oil reserves in sub-Saharan Africa, estimated at 3.5 billion barrels, with just 30 percent of the country explored to date.

Under this new EPSA which includes a six-year exploration period, the SFF alongside Nilepet, will launch a comprehensive aero gravity survey exploration campaign, seismic acquisition and drilling wells with great prospectivity. The SFF will also invest in capacity building initiatives, training of South Sudanese citizens, investing in social and community development projects and ensuring local content and women empowerment.

“The petroleum resources of Block B2 are vast. For South Sudan to reach its target of bringing back production levels of around 350,000 barrels of oil per day (bopd) and beyond, we need committed new entrants like the SFF,” said the country’s Minister of Petroleum Ezekiel Lol Gatkuoth.

“South Sudan has great potential, yet our country remains vastly under-explored, and we believe the entry of new players like the SFF will lead to new world-class discoveries very soon given the aggressive exploration program and great petroleum viability of Block B3. This will support South Sudan’s economic revival and improve trade with other African countries.”

Jeff Radebe, South African Energy Minister, said: “We are bullish about this strategic and unique opportunity into Block B2 with great petroleum potential. It provides South Africa with a chance to further strengthen its energy security while entering one of the top three most lucrative onshore oil and gas markets in Africa.

“South Africa has supported peace and economic development in South Sudan since the country’s independence and this is the continuation of long-term cooperation between both our countries and people. Investment is key to guaranteeing the economic progress of South Sudan.”

Last year, South Africa’s Department of Energy pledged to invest $1 billion into South Sudan’s petroleum industry, with the aim of securing affordable energy supplies for South Africa. The countries are now in talks to set up a 60,000 barrel per day refinery to supply oil products to the local market in South Sudan, as well as to secure exports to Ethiopia and other neighboring countries.

“SFF is looking forward to working with our partners in South Sudan to make discoveries on this block. We believe there are highly significant quantities of oil in Block B2. Our work program and acquisition of new seismic will reveal better information on various structures. We look forward to a few wildcats and appraisal wells in the near future. We are thankful to the Government of South Sudan for this opportunity,” stated Godfrey Moagi, acting CEO of SFF.

The B2 area includes productive parts of the Muglad Basin and is part of the 120,000km2 Block B which was split into three in 2012. There has been much interest in South Sudan’s Block B acreages since the entry of Oranto Petroleum to Block B3 in 2017.  Much of South Sudan’s oil and gas blocks are yet to be fully explored and resources assessed.
Power Supply Deficit Hits SADC Region
By Southern Times
Sinikiwe Marodza and Mirirai Ngoya

Harare - There is a serious power generation deficit within the SADC region that needs an urgent attention as most countries are currently failing to meet their specific installed power generation capacities, figures from the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) show.

According to the regional power pool, Angola is currently producing 2.500 megawatts of power, yet its installed generation capacity is 3,129 MW, Botswana is operating at 459 MW against their 927MW installed capacity, and the Democratic Republic of Congo is  producing 1,076 MW yet their installed generation capacity is 2.457 MW.

Eswathini’s installed generation capacity is 70 MW yet they are currently operating at 55 MW, Lesotho is operating at 70 MW against the installed 74 MW generation capacity whilst Malawi is making do with 270 MW against the 447 MW installed generation capacity.

The same statistics are indicating that Namibia is operating at 354 MW failing to meet the installed generation capacity of 749 MW, South Africa currently running at 46,461 against their 52. 096 MW installed generation capacity and Tanzania’s current operating capacity is 1 221 MW against the 1 461 MW installed generation capacity.

SAPP statistics also indicate that before the recent move by the Zambezi River Authority to reduce water supply for Zimbabwe and Zambia’s power plants at Kariba Dam from 38 billion cubic square metres to 36 billion cubic square metres, Zimbabwe has been operating on 1 555 MW against its 2 042 MW installed generating capacity, while Zambia has been operating at 2,734 MW which is their rightful installed generation capacity.

SAPP coordination centre manager, Stephen Dihwa, said Mozambique is the only country that is producing surplus electricity to feed into the SAPP market for other SADC countries to have access to the power.

“Mozambique, which is one of the largest power generating countries in the SADC region, will be the main source of power in the meantime, as they are the only country that is producing surplus electricity.

“In the region, power generation is down to a greater extent, with countries like South Africa no longer able to produce surplus electricity, since there was an unexpected break down of power generators at Eskom plant in South Africa so it cannot trade surplus electricity on the market.

“Countries like Namibia, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland and Zimbabwe are likely to look for power load shifting since South Africa is no longer able to produce surplus electricity,” Dihwa said

However, Dihwa highlighted that other countries that have signed bilateral agreements to be supplied power by South Africa can buy the little available power from the SAPP market, while some can only have access during the night depending on the amount of surplus   power on the market.

“With the recent move by the Zambezi River Authority of reducing Zimbabwe and Zambia’s water supply for hydro electricity generation from 38 billion cubic square metres to 36 cubic square metres, it means that the operating electricity capacity for these two countries has also reduced from the statistics we have to a lower statistic and the deficit has increased for these two countries.

“However, Zimbabwe and Zambia can buy power from Mozambique. Electricidade de Moçambique is generating power from gas which can help Zimbabwe and other SADC countries with electricity.

“Analysing the power structure within the region, it shows that it has become a big problem to generate adequate electricity for each country” Dihwa said.

Given the power challenges facing the SADC region, analysists say it was high time countries in the region invest in solar power stations so as to augment their national supplies.
The 1964 ‘Ballot or the Bullet’ Speech by Malcolm X is the 7th Greatest American Speech of the 20th Century 
May 19, 2019 at 05:00 pm | HISTORY

In 1964, Malcolm X delivered his famous Ballot or the Bullet speech at the Cory Methodist Church in Cleveland, Ohio.

Regarded as the 7th greatest speech in the United States in the 20th century by 137 leading scholars of American public address, Malcolm X called on his fellow African-Americans to exercise their right to franchise in what was an election year with Lyndon B. Johnson, who took over as president after John F. Kennedy’s assassination emerging victorious.

Malcolm also called for an evolution and expansion of the Civil Rights Movement and reemphasized on the need for the establishment of Black Rifle Clubs for protection, among other topics.

Prior to delivering the speech, Malcolm, in March that same year had already announced his departure from the Nation of Islam due to differences and tensions with then leader Elijah Muhammad over the political direction of the organization.

Read the full speech below:

Mr. Moderator, Brother Lomax, brothers and sisters, friends and enemies: I just can’t believe everyone in here is a friend, and I don’t want to leave anybody out. The question tonight, as I understand it, is “The Negro Revolt, and Where Do We Go From Here?” or What Next?” In my little humble way of understanding it, it points toward either the ballot or the bullet.

Before we try and explain what is meant by the ballot or the bullet, I would like to clarify something concerning myself. I’m still a Muslim; my religion is still Islam. That’s my personal belief. Just as Adam Clayton Powell is a Christian minister who heads the Abyssinian Baptist Church in New York, but at the same time takes part in the political struggles to try and bring about rights to the black people in this country; and Dr. Martin Luther King is a Christian minister down in Atlanta, Georgia, who heads another organization fighting for the civil rights of black people in this country; and Reverend Galamison, I guess you’ve heard of him, is another Christian minister in New York who has been deeply involved in the school boycotts to eliminate segregated education; well, I myself am a minister, not a Christian minister, but a Muslim minister; and I believe in action on all fronts by whatever means necessary.

Although I’m still a Muslim, I’m not here tonight to discuss my religion. I’m not here to try and change your religion. I’m not here to argue or discuss anything that we differ about, because it’s time for us to submerge our differences and realize that it is best for us to first see that we have the same problem, a common problem, a problem that will make you catch hell whether you’re a Baptist, or a Methodist, or a Muslim, or a nationalist. Whether you’re educated or illiterate, whether you live on the boulevard or in the alley, you’re going to catch hell just like I am. We’re all in the same boat and we all are going to catch the same hell from the same man. He just happens to be a white man. All of us have suffered here, in this country, political oppression at the hands of the white man, economic exploitation at the hands of the white man, and social degradation at the hands of the white man.

Now in speaking like this, it doesn’t mean that we’re anti-white, but it does mean we’re anti-exploitation, we’re anti-degradation, we’re anti-oppression. And if the white man doesn’t want us to be anti-him, let him stop oppressing and exploiting and degrading us. Whether we are Christians or Muslims or nationalists or agnostics or atheists, we must first learn to forget our differences. If we have differences, let us differ in the closet; when we come out in front, let us not have anything to argue about until we get finished arguing with the man. If the late President Kennedy could get together with Khrushchev and exchange some wheat, we certainly have more in common with each other than Kennedy and Khrushchev had with each other.

If we don’t do something real soon, I think you’ll have to agree that we’re going to be forced either to use the ballot or the bullet. It’s one or the other in 1964. It isn’t that time is running out—time has run out!

1964 threatens to be the most explosive year America has ever witnessed. The most explosive year. Why? It’s also a political year. It’s the year when all of the white politicians will be back in the so-called Negro community jiving you and me for some votes. The year when all of the white political crooks will be right back in your and my community with their false promises, building up our hopes for a letdown, with their trickery and their treachery, with their false promises which they don’t intend to keep. As they nourish these dissatisfactions, it can only lead to one thing, an explosion; and now we have the type of black man on the scene in America today—I’m sorry, Brother Lomax—who just doesn’t intend to turn the other cheek any longer.

Don’t let anybody tell you anything about the odds are against you. If they draft you, they send you to Korea and make you face 800 million Chinese. If you can be brave over there, you can be brave right here. These odds aren’t as great as those odds. And if you fight here, you will at least know what you’re fighting for.

I’m not a politician, not even a student of politics; in fact, I’m not a student of much of anything. I’m not a Democrat. I’m not a Republican, and I don’t even consider myself an American. If you and I were Americans, there’d be no problem. Those Honkies that just got off the boat, they’re already Americans; Polacks are already Americans; the Italian refugees are already Americans. Everything that came out of Europe, every blue-eyed thing, is already an American. And as long as you and I have been over here, we aren’t Americans yet.

Well, I am one who doesn’t believe in deluding myself. I’m not going to sit at your table and watch you eat, with nothing on my plate, and call myself a diner. Sitting at the table doesn’t make you a diner, unless you eat some of what’s on that plate. Being here in America doesn’t make you an American. Being born here in America doesn’t make you an American. Why, if birth made you American, you wouldn’t need any legislation; you wouldn’t need any amendments to the Constitution; you wouldn’t be faced with civil-rights filibustering in Washington, D.C., right now. They don’t have to pass civil-rights legislation to make a Polack an American.

No, I’m not an American. I’m one of the 22 million black people who are the victims of Americanism. One of the 22 million black people who are the victims of democracy, nothing but disguised hypocrisy. So, I’m not standing here speaking to you as an American, or a patriot, or a flag-saluter, or a flag-waver—no, not I. I’m speaking as a victim of this American system. And I see America through the eyes of the victim. I don’t see any American dream; I see an American nightmare.

These 22 million victims are waking up. Their eyes are coming open. They’re beginning to see what they used to only look at. They’re becoming politically mature. They are realizing that there are new political trends from coast to coast. As they see these new political trends, it’s possible for them to see that every time there’s an election the races are so close that they have to have a recount. They had to recount in Massachusetts to see who was going to be governor, it was so close. It was the same way in Rhode Island, in Minnesota, and in many other parts of the country. And the same with Kennedy and Nixon when they ran for president. It was so close they had to count all over again. Well, what does this mean? It means that when white people are evenly divided, and black people have a bloc of votes of their own, it is left up to them to determine who’s going to sit in the White House and who’s going to be in the dog house.

lt. was the black man’s vote that put the present administration in Washington, D.C. Your vote, your dumb vote, your ignorant vote, your wasted vote put in an administration in Washington, D.C., that has seen fit to pass every kind of legislation imaginable, saving you until last, then filibustering on top of that. And your and my leaders have the audacity to run around clapping their hands and talk about how much progress we’re making. And what a good president we have. If he wasn’t good in Texas, he sure can’t be good in Washington, D.C. Because Texas is a lynch state. It is in the same breath as Mississippi, no different; only they lynch you in Texas with a Texas accent and lynch you in Mississippi with a Mississippi accent. And these Negro leaders have the audacity to go and have some coffee in the White House with a Texan, a Southern cracker—that’s all he is—and then come out and tell you and me that he’s going to be better for us because, since he’s from the South, he knows how to deal with the Southerners. What kind of logic is that? Let Eastland be president, he’s from the South too. He should be better able to deal with them than Johnson.

In this present administration they have in the House of Representatives 257 Democrats to only 177 Republicans. They control two-thirds of the House vote. Why can’t they pass something that will help you and me? In the Senate, there are 67 senators who are of the Democratic Party. Only 33 of them are Republicans. Why, the Democrats have got the government sewed up, and you’re the one who sewed it up for them. And what have they given you for it? Four years in office, and just now getting around to some civil-rights legislation. Just now, after everything else is gone, out of the way, they’re going to sit down now and play with you all summer long—the same old giant con game that they call filibuster. All those are in cahoots together. Don’t you ever think they’re not in cahoots together, for the man that is heading the civil-rights filibuster is a man from Georgia named Richard Russell. When Johnson became president, the first man he asked for when he got back to Washington, D.C., was “Dicky”—that’s how tight they are. That’s his boy, that’s his pal, that’s his buddy. But they’re playing that old con game. One of them makes believe he’s for you, and he’s got it fixed where the other one is so tight against you, he never has to keep his promise.

So it’s time in 1964 to wake up. And when you see them coming up with that kind of conspiracy, let them know your eyes are open. And let them know you—something else that’s wide open too. It’s got to be the ballot or the bullet. The ballot or the bullet. If you’re afraid to use an expression like that, you should get on out of the country; you should get back in the cotton patch; you should get back in the alley. They get all the Negro vote, and after they get it, the Negro gets nothing in return. All they did when they got to Washington was give a few big Negroes big jobs. Those big Negroes didn’t need big jobs, they already had jobs. That’s camouflage, that’s trickery, that’s treachery, window-dressing. I’m not trying to knock out the Democrats for the Republicans. We’ll get to them in a minute. But it is true; you put the Democrats first and the Democrats put you last.

Look at it the way it is. What alibis do they use, since they control Congress and the Senate? What alibi do they use when you and I ask, “Well, when are you going to keep your promise?” They blame the Dixiecrats. What is a Dixiecrat? A Democrat. A Dixiecrat is nothing but a Democrat in disguise. The titular head of the Democrats is also the head of the Dixiecrats, because the Dixiecrats are a part of the Democratic Party. The Democrats have never kicked the Dixiecrats out of the party. The Dixiecrats bolted themselves once, but the Democrats didn’t put them out. Imagine, these lowdown Southern segregationists put the Northern Democrats down. But the Northern Democrats have never put the Dixiecrats down. No, look at that thing the way it is. They have got a con game going on, a political con game, and you and I are in the middle. It’s time for you and me to wake up and start looking at it like it is, and trying to understand it like it is; and then we can deal with it like it is.

The Dixiecrats in Washington, D.C., control the key committees that run the government. The only reason the Dixiecrats control these committees is because they have seniority. The only reason they have seniority is because they come from states where Negroes can’t vote. This is not even a government that’s based on democracy. lt. is not a government that is made up of representatives of the people. Half of the people in the South can’t even vote. Eastland is not even supposed to be in Washington. Half of the senators and congressmen who occupy these key positions in Washington, D.C., are there illegally, are there unconstitutionally.

I was in Washington, D.C., a week ago Thursday, when they were debating whether or not they should let the bill come onto the floor. And in the back of the room where the Senate meets, there’s a huge map of the United States, and on that map it shows the location of Negroes throughout the country. And it shows that the Southern section of the country, the states that are most heavily concentrated with Negroes, are the ones that have senators and congressmen standing up filibustering and doing all other kinds of trickery to keep the Negro from being able to vote. This is pitiful. But it’s not pitiful for us any longer; it’s actually pitiful for the white man, because soon now, as the Negro awakens a little more and sees the vise that he’s in, sees the bag that he’s in, sees the real game that he’s in, then the Negro’s going to develop a new tactic.

These senators and congressmen actually violate the constitutional amendments that guarantee the people of that particular state or county the right to vote. And the Constitution itself has within it the machinery to expel any representative from a state where the voting rights of the people are violated. You don’t even need new legislation. Any person in Congress right now, who is there from a state or a district where the voting rights of the people are violated, that particular person should be expelled from Congress. And when you expel him, you’ve removed one of the obstacles in the path of any real meaningful legislation in this country. In fact, when you expel them, you don’t need new legislation, because they will be replaced by black representatives from counties and districts where the black man is in the majority, not in the minority.

If the black man in these Southern states had his full voting rights, the key Dixiecrats in Washington, D. C., which means the key Democrats in Washington, D.C., would lose their seats. The Democratic Party itself would lose its power. It would cease to be powerful as a party. When you see the amount of power that would be lost by the Democratic Party if it were to lose the Dixiecrat wing, or branch, or element, you can see where it’s against the interests of the Democrats to give voting rights to Negroes in states where the Democrats have been in complete power and authority ever since the Civil War. You just can’t belong to that Party without analyzing it.

I say again, I’m not anti-Democrat, I’m not anti-Republican, I’m not anti-anything. I’m just questioning their sincerity, and some of the strategy that they’ve been using on our people by promising them promises that they don’t intend to keep. When you keep the Democrats in power, you’re keeping the Dixiecrats in power. I doubt that my good Brother Lomax will deny that. A vote for a Democrat is a vote for a Dixiecrat. That’s why, in 1964, it’s time now for you and me to become more politically mature and realize what the ballot is for; what we’re supposed to get when we cast a ballot; and that if we don’t cast a ballot, it’s going to end up in a situation where we’re going to have to cast a bullet. It’s either a ballot or a bullet.

In the North, they do it a different way. They have a system that’s known as gerrymandering, whatever that means. It means when Negroes become too heavily concentrated in a certain area, and begin to gain too much political power, the white man comes along and changes the district lines. You may say, “Why do you keep saying white man?” Because it’s the white man who does it. I haven’t ever seen any Negro changing any lines. They don’t let him get near the line. It’s the white man who does this. And usually, it’s the white man who grins at you the most, and pats you on the back, and is supposed to be your friend. He may be friendly, but he’s not your friend.

So, what I’m trying to impress upon you, in essence, is this: You and I in America are faced not with a segregationist conspiracy, we’re faced with a government conspiracy. Everyone who’s filibustering is a senator—that’s the government. Everyone who’s finagling in Washington, D.C., is a congressman—that’s the government. You don’t have anybody putting blocks in your path but people who are a part of the government. The same government that you go abroad to fight for and die for is the government that is in a conspiracy to deprive you of your voting rights, deprive you of your economic opportunities, deprive you of decent housing, deprive you of decent education. You don’t need to go to the employer alone, it is the government itself, the government of America, that is responsible for the oppression and exploitation and degradation of black people in this country. And you should drop it in their lap. This government has failed the Negro. This so-called democracy has failed the Negro. And all these white liberals have definitely failed the Negro.

So, where do we go from here? First, we need some friends. We need some new allies. The entire civil-rights struggle needs a new interpretation, a broader interpretation. We need to look at this civil-rights thing from another angle—from the inside as well as from the outside. To those of us whose philosophy is black nationalism, the only way you can get involved in the civil-rights struggle is give it a new interpretation. That old interpretation excluded us. It kept us out. So, we’re giving a new interpretation to the civil-rights struggle, an interpretation that will enable us to come into it, take part in it. And these handkerchief-heads who have been dillydallying and pussy footing and compromising—we don’t intend to let them pussyfoot and dillydally and compromise any longer.

How can you thank a man for giving you what’s already yours? How then can you thank him for giving you only part of what’s already yours? You haven’t even made progress, if what’s being given to you, you should have had already. That’s not progress. And I love my Brother Lomax, the way he pointed out we’re right back where we were in 1954. We’re not even as far up as we were in 1954. We’re behind where we were in 1954. There’s more segregation now than there was in 1954. There’s more racial animosity, more racial hatred, more racial violence today in 1964, than there was in 1954. Where is the progress?

And now you’re facing a situation where the young Negro’s coming up. They don’t want to hear that “turn the-other-cheek” stuff, no. In Jacksonville, those were teenagers, they were throwing Molotov cocktails. Negroes have never done that before. But it shows you there’s a new deal coming in. There’s new thinking coming in. There’s new strategy coming in. It’ll be Molotov cocktails this month, hand grenades next month, and something else next month. It’ll be ballots, or it’ll be bullets. It’ll be liberty, or it will be death. The only difference about this kind of death—it’ll be reciprocal. You know what is meant by “reciprocal”? That’s one of Brother Lomax’s words. I stole it from him. I don’t usually deal with those big words because I don’t usually deal with big people. I deal with small people. I find you can get a whole lot of small people and whip hell out of a whole lot of big people. They haven’t got anything to lose, and they’ve got every thing to gain. And they’ll let you know in a minute: “It takes two to tango; when I go, you go.”

The black nationalists, those whose philosophy is black nationalism, in bringing about this new interpretation of the entire meaning of civil rights, look upon it as meaning, as Brother Lomax has pointed out, equality of opportunity. Well, we’re justified in seeking civil rights, if it means equality of opportunity, because all we’re doing there is trying to collect for our investment. Our mothers and fathers invested sweat and blood. Three hundred and ten years we worked in this country without a dime in return—I mean without a dime in return. You let the white man walk around here talking about how rich this country is, but you never stop to think how it got rich so quick. It got rich because you made it rich.

You take the people who are in this audience right now. They’re poor. We’re all poor as individuals. Our weekly salary individually amounts to hardly anything. But if you take the salary of everyone in here collectively, it’ll fill up a whole lot of baskets. It’s a lot of wealth. If you can collect the wages of just these people right here for a year, you’ll be rich—richer than rich. When you look at it like that, think how rich Uncle Sam had to become, not with this handful, but millions of black people. Your and my mother and father, who didn’t work an eight-hour shift, but worked from “can’t see” in the morning until “can’t see” at night, and worked for nothing, making the white man rich, making Uncle Sam rich. This is our investment. This is our contribution, our blood.

Not only did we give of our free labor, we gave of our blood. Every time he had a call to arms, we were the first ones in uniform. We died on every battlefield the white man had. We have made a greater sacrifice than anybody who’s standing up in America today. We have made a greater contribution and have collected less. Civil rights, for those of us whose philosophy is black nationalism, means: “Give it to us now. Don’t wait for next year. Give it to us yesterday, and that’s not fast enough.”

I might stop right here to point out one thing. Whenever you’re going after something that belongs to you, anyone who’s depriving you of the right to have it is a criminal. Understand that. Whenever you are going after something that is yours, you are within your legal rights to lay claim to it. And anyone who puts forth any effort to deprive you of that which is yours, is breaking the law, is a criminal. And this was pointed out by the Supreme Court decision. It outlawed segregation.

Which means segregation is against the law. Which means a segregationist is breaking the law. A segregationist is a criminal. You can’t label him as anything other than that. And when you demonstrate against segregation, the law is on your side. The Supreme Court is on your side.

Now, who is it that opposes you in carrying out the law? The police department itself. With police dogs and clubs. Whenever you demonstrate against segregation, whether it is segregated education, segregated housing, or anything else, the law is on your side, and anyone who stands in the way is not the law any longer. They are breaking the law; they are not representatives of the law. Any time you demonstrate against segregation and a man has the audacity to put a police dog on you, kill that dog, kill him, I’m telling you, kill that dog. I say it if they put me in jail tomorrow, kill that dog. Then you’ll put a stop to it. Now, if these white people in here don’t want to see that kind of action, get down and tell the mayor to tell the police department to pull the dogs in. That’s all you have to do. If you don’t do it, someone else will.

If you don’t take this kind of stand, your little children will grow up and look at you and think “shame.” If you don’t take an uncompromising stand, I don’t mean go out and get violent; but at the same time you should never be nonviolent unless you run into some nonviolence. I’m nonviolent with those who are nonviolent with me. But when you drop that violence on me, then you’ve made me go insane, and I’m not responsible for what I do. And that’s the way every Negro should get. Any time you know you’re within the law, within your legal rights, within your moral rights, in accord with justice, then die for what you believe in. But don’t die alone. Let your dying be reciprocal. This is what is meant by equality. What’s good for the goose is good for the gander.

When we begin to get in this area, we need new friends, we need new allies. We need to expand the civil-rights struggle to a higher level—to the level of human rights. Whenever you are in a civil-rights struggle, whether you know it or not, you are confining yourself to the jurisdiction of Uncle Sam. No one from the outside world can speak out in your behalf as long as your struggle is a civil-rights struggle. Civil rights comes within the domestic affairs of this country. All of our African brothers and our Asian brothers and our Latin-American brothers cannot open their mouths and interfere in the domestic affairs of the United States. And as long as it’s civil rights, this comes under the jurisdiction of Uncle Sam.

But the United Nations has what’s known as the charter of human rights; it has a committee that deals in human rights. You may wonder why all of the atrocities that have been committed in Africa and in Hungary and in Asia, and in Latin America are brought before the UN, and the Negro problem is never brought before the UN. This is part of the conspiracy. This old, tricky blue eyed liberal who is supposed to be your and my friend, supposed to be in our corner, supposed to be subsidizing our struggle, and supposed to be acting in the capacity of an adviser, never tells you anything about human rights. They keep you wrapped up in civil rights. And you spend so much time barking up the civil-rights tree, you don’t even know there’s a human-rights tree on the same floor.

When you expand the civil-rights struggle to the level of human rights, you can then take the case of the black man in this country before the nations in the UN. You can take it before the General Assembly. You can take Uncle Sam before a world court. But the only level you can do it on is the level of human rights. Civil rights keeps you under his restrictions, under his jurisdiction. Civil rights keeps you in his pocket. Civil rights means you’re asking Uncle Sam to treat you right. Human rights are something you were born with. Human rights are your God-given rights. Human rights are the rights that are recognized by all nations of this earth. And any time any one violates your human rights, you can take them to the world court.

Uncle Sam’s hands are dripping with blood, dripping with the blood of the black man in this country. He’s the earth’s number-one hypocrite. He has the audacity—yes, he has—imagine him posing as the leader of the free world. The free world! And you over here singing “We Shall Overcome.” Expand the civil-rights struggle to the level of human rights. Take it into the United Nations, where our African brothers can throw their weight on our side, where our Asian brothers can throw their weight on our side, where our Latin-American brothers can throw their weight on our side, and where 800 million Chinamen are sitting there waiting to throw their weight on our side.

Let the world know how bloody his hands are. Let the world know the hypocrisy that’s practiced over here. Let it be the ballot or the bullet. Let him know that it must be the ballot or the bullet.

When you take your case to Washington, D.C., you’re taking it to the criminal who’s responsible; it’s like running from the wolf to the fox. They’re all in cahoots together. They all work political chicanery and make you look like a chump before the eyes of the world. Here you are walking around in America, getting ready to be drafted and sent abroad, like a tin soldier, and when you get over there, people ask you what are you fighting for, and you have to stick your tongue in your cheek. No, take Uncle Sam to court, take him before the world.

By ballot I only mean freedom. Don’t you know—I disagree with Lomax on this issue—that the ballot is more important than the dollar? Can I prove it? Yes. Look in the UN. There are poor nations in the UN; yet those poor nations can get together with their voting power and keep the rich nations from making a move. They have one nation—one vote, everyone has an equal vote. And when those brothers from Asia, and Africa and the darker parts of this earth get together, their voting power is sufficient to hold Sam in check. Or Russia in check. Or some other section of the earth in check. So, the ballot is most important.

Right now, in this country, if you and I, 22 million African-Americans—that’s what we are—Africans who are in America. You’re nothing but Africans. Nothing but Africans. In fact, you’d get farther calling yourself African instead of Negro. Africans don’t catch hell. You’re the only one catching hell. They don’t have to pass civil-rights bills for Africans. An African can go anywhere he wants right now. All you’ve got to do is tie your head up. That’s right, go anywhere you want. Just stop being a Negro. Change your name to Hoogagagooba. That’ll show you how silly the white man is. You’re dealing with a silly man. A friend of mine who’s very dark put a turban on his head and went into a restaurant in Atlanta before they called themselves desegregated. He went into a white restaurant, he sat down, they served him, and he said, “What would happen if a Negro came in here? And there he’s sitting, black as night, but because he had his head wrapped up the waitress looked back at him and says, “Why, there wouldn’t no nigger dare come in here.”

So, you’re dealing with a man whose bias and prejudice are making him lose his mind, his intelligence, every day. He’s frightened. He looks around and sees what’s taking place on this earth, and he sees that the pendulum of time is swinging in your direction. The dark people are waking up. They’re losing their fear of the white man. No place where he’s fighting right now is he winning. Everywhere he’s fighting, he’s fighting someone your and my complexion. And they’re beating him. He can’t win any more. He’s won his last battle. He failed to win the Korean War. He couldn’t win it. He had to sign a truce. That’s a loss.

Any time Uncle Sam, with all his machinery for warfare, is held to a draw by some rice eaters, he’s lost the battle. He had to sign a truce. America’s not supposed to sign a truce. She’s supposed to be bad. But she’s not bad any more. She’s bad as long as she can use her hydrogen bomb, but she can’t use hers for fear Russia might use hers. Russia can’t use hers, for fear that Sam might use his. So, both of them are weapon-less. They can’t use the weapon because each’s weapon nullifies the other’s. So the only place where action can take place is on the ground. And the white man can’t win another war fighting on the ground. Those days are over The black man knows it, the brown man knows it, the red man knows it, and the yellow man knows it. So they engage him in guerrilla warfare. That’s not his style. You’ve got to have heart to be a guerrilla warrior, and he hasn’t got any heart. I’m telling you now.

I just want to give you a little briefing on guerrilla warfare because, before you know it, before you know it. It takes heart to be a guerrilla warrior because you’re on your own. In conventional warfare you have tanks and a whole lot of other people with you to back you up—planes over your head and all that kind of stuff. But a guerrilla is on his own. All you have is a rifle, some sneakers and a bowl of rice, and that’s all you need—and a lot of heart. The Japanese on some of those islands in the Pacific, when the American soldiers landed, one Japanese sometimes could hold the whole army off. He’d just wait until the sun went down, and when the sun went down they were all equal. He would take his little blade and slip from bush to bush, and from American to American. The white soldiers couldn’t cope with that. Whenever you see a white soldier that fought in the Pacific, he has the shakes, he has a nervous condition, because they scared him to death.

The same thing happened to the French up in French Indochina. People who just a few years previously were rice farmers got together and ran the heavily-mechanized French army out of Indochina. You don’t need it—modern warfare today won’t work. This is the day of the guerrilla. They did the same thing in Algeria. Algerians, who were nothing but Bedouins, took a rine and sneaked off to the hills, and de Gaulle and all of his highfalutin’ war machinery couldn’t defeat those guerrillas. Nowhere on this earth does the white man win in a guerrilla warfare. It’s not his speed. Just as guerrilla warfare is prevailing in Asia and in parts of Africa and in parts of Latin America, you’ve got to be mighty naive, or you’ve got to play the black man cheap, if you don’t think some day he’s going to wake up and find that it’s got to be the ballot or the bullet.

I would like to say, in closing, a few things concerning the Muslim Mosque, Inc., which we established recently in New York City. It’s true we’re Muslims and our religion is Islam, but we don’t mix our religion with our politics and our economics and our social and civil activities—not any more We keep our religion in our mosque. After our religious services are over, then as Muslims we become involved in political action, economic action and social and civic action. We become involved with anybody, any where, any time and in any manner that’s designed to eliminate the evils, the political, economic and social evils that are afflicting the people of our community.

The political philosophy of black nationalism means that the black man should control the politics and the politicians in his own community; no more. The black man in the black community has to be re-educated into the science of politics so he will know what politics is supposed to bring him in return. Don’t be throwing out any ballots. A ballot is like a bullet. You don’t throw your ballots until you see a target, and if that target is not within your reach, keep your ballot in your pocket.

The political philosophy of black nationalism is being taught in the Christian church. It’s being taught in the NAACP. It’s being taught in CORE meetings. It’s being taught in SNCC Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee meetings. It’s being taught in Muslim meetings. It’s being taught where nothing but atheists and agnostics come together. It’s being taught everywhere. Black people are fed up with the dillydallying, pussyfooting, compromising approach that we’ve been using toward getting our freedom. We want freedom now, but we’re not going to get it saying “We Shall Overcome.” We’ve got to fight until we overcome.

The economic philosophy of black nationalism is pure and simple. It only means that we should control the economy of our community. Why should white people be running all the stores in our community? Why should white people be running the banks of our community? Why should the economy of our community be in the hands of the white man? Why? If a black man can’t move his store into a white community, you tell me why a white man should move his store into a black community. The philosophy of black nationalism involves a re-education program in the black community in regards to economics. Our people have to be made to see that any time you take your dollar out of your community and spend it in a community where you don’t live, the community where you live will get poorer and poorer, and the community where you spend your money will get richer and richer.

Then you wonder why where you live is always a ghetto or a slum area. And where you and I are concerned, not only do we lose it when we spend it out of the community, but the white man has got all our stores in the community tied up; so that though we spend it in the community, at sundown the man who runs the store takes it over across town somewhere. He’s got us in a vise.

So the economic philosophy of black nationalism means in every church, in every civic organization, in every fraternal order, it’s time now for our people to become conscious of the importance of controlling the economy of our community. If we own the stores, if we operate the businesses, if we try and establish some industry in our own community, then we’re developing to the position where we are creating employment for our own kind. Once you gain control of the economy of your own community, then you don’t have to picket and boycott and beg some cracker downtown for a job in his business.

The social philosophy of black nationalism only means that we have to get together and remove the evils, the vices, alcoholism, drug addiction, and other evils that are destroying the moral fiber of our community. We our selves have to lift the level of our community, the standard of our community to a higher level, make our own society beautiful so that we will be satisfied in our own social circles and won’t be running around here trying to knock our way into a social circle where we’re not wanted. So I say, in spreading a gospel such as black nationalism, it is not designed to make the black man re-evaluate the white man—you know him already—but to make the black man re-evaluate himself. Don’t change the white man’s mind—you can’t change his mind, and that whole thing about appealing to the moral conscience of America—America’s conscience is bankrupt. She lost all conscience a long time ago. Uncle Sam has no conscience.

They don’t know what morals are. They don’t try and eliminate an evil because it’s evil, or because it’s illegal, or because it’s immoral; they eliminate it only when it threatens their existence. So you’re wasting your time appealing to the moral conscience of a bankrupt man like Uncle Sam. If he had a conscience, he’d straighten this thing out with no more pressure being put upon him. So it is not necessary to change the white man’s mind. We have to change our own mind. You can’t change his mind about us. We’ve got to change our own minds about each other. We have to see each other with new eyes. We have to see each other as brothers and sisters. We have to come together with warmth so we can develop unity and harmony that’s necessary to get this problem solved ourselves. How can we do this? How can we avoid jealousy? How can we avoid the suspicion and the divisions that exist in the community? I’ll tell you how.

I have watched how Billy Graham comes into a city, spreading what he calls the gospel of Christ, which is only white nationalism. That’s what he is. Billy Graham is a white nationalist; I’m a black nationalist. But since it’s the natural tendency for leaders to be jealous and look upon a powerful figure like Graham with suspicion and envy, how is it possible for him to come into a city and get all the cooperation of the church leaders? Don’t think because they’re church leaders that they don’t have weaknesses that make them envious and jealous—no, everybody’s got it. It’s not an accident that when they want to choose a cardinal, as Pope I over there in Rome, they get in a closet so you can’t hear them cussing and fighting and carrying on.

Billy Graham comes in preaching the gospel of Christ. He evangelizes the gospel. He stirs everybody up, but he never tries to start a church. If he came in trying to start a church, all the churches would be against him. So, he just comes in talking about Christ and tells everybody who gets Christ to go to any church where Christ is; and in this way the church cooperates with him. So we’re going to take a page from his book.

Our gospel is black nationalism. We’re not trying to threaten the existence of any organization, but we’re spreading the gospel of black nationalism. Anywhere there’s a church that is also preaching and practicing the gospel of black nationalism, join that church. If the NAACP is preaching and practicing the gospel of black nationalism, join the NAACP. If CORE is spreading and practicing the gospel of black nationalism, join CORE. Join any organization that has a gospel that’s for the uplift of the black man. And when you get into it and see them pussyfooting or compromising, pull out of it because that’s not black nationalism. We’ll find another one.

And in this manner, the organizations will increase in number and in quantity and in quality, and by August, it is then our intention to have a black nationalist convention which will consist of delegates from all over the country who are interested in the political, economic and social philosophy of black nationalism. After these delegates convene, we will hold a seminar; we will hold discussions; we will listen to everyone. We want to hear new ideas and new solutions and new answers. And at that time, if we see fit then to form a black nationalist party, we’ll form a black nationalist party. If it’s necessary to form a black nationalist army, we’ll form a black nationalist army. It’ll be the ballot or the bullet. It’ll be liberty or it’ll be death.

It’s time for you and me to stop sitting in this country, letting some cracker senators, Northern crackers and Southern crackers, sit there in Washington, D.C., and come to a conclusion in their mind that you and I are supposed to have civil rights. There’s no white man going to tell me anything about my rights. Brothers and sisters, always remember, if it doesn’t take senators and congressmen and presidential proclamations to give freedom to the white man, it is not necessary for legislation or proclamation or Supreme Court decisions to give freedom to the black man. You let that white man know, if this is a country of freedom, let it be a country of freedom; and if it’s not a country of freedom, change it.

We will work with anybody, anywhere, at any time, who is genuinely interested in tackling the problem head-on, nonviolently as long as the enemy is nonviolent, but violent when the enemy gets violent. We’ll work with you on the voter-registration drive, we’ll work with you on rent strikes, we’ll work with you on school boycotts; I don’t believe in any kind of integration; I’m not even worried about it, because I know you’re not going to get it anyway; you’re not going to get it because you’re afraid to die; you’ve got to be ready to die if you try and force yourself on the white man, because he’ll get just as violent as those crackers in Mississippi, right here in Cleveland. But we will still work with you on the school boycotts because we’re against a segregated school system. A segregated school system produces children who, when they graduate, graduate with crippled minds. But this does not mean that a school is segregated because it’s all black. A segregated school means a school that is controlled by people who have no real interest in it whatsoever.

Let me explain what I mean. A segregated district or community is a community in which people live, but outsiders control the politics and the economy of that community. They never refer to the white section as a segregated community. It’s the all-Negro section that’s a segregated community. Why? The white man controls his own school, his own bank, his own economy, his own politics, his own everything, his own community; but he also controls yours. When you’re under someone else’s control, you’re segregated. They’ll always give you the lowest or the worst that there is to offer, but it doesn’t mean you’re segregated just because you have your own. You’ve got to control your own. Just like the white man has control of his, you need to control yours.

You know the best way to get rid of segregation? The white man is more afraid of separation than he is of integration. Segregation means that he puts you away from him, but not far enough for you to be out of his jurisdiction; separation means you’re gone. And the white man will integrate faster than he’ll let you separate. So we will work with you against the segregated school system because it’s criminal, because it is absolutely destructive, in every way imaginable, to the minds of the children who have to be exposed to that type of crippling education.

Last but not least, I must say this concerning the great controversy over rifles and shotguns. The only thing that I’ve ever said is that in areas where the government has proven itself either unwilling or unable to defend the lives and the property of Negroes, it’s time for Negroes to defend themselves. Article number two of the constitutional amendments provides you and me the right to own a rifle or a shotgun. It is constitutionally legal to own a shotgun or a rifle. This doesn’t mean you’re going to get a rifle and form battalions and go out looking for white folks, although you’d be within your rights—I mean, you’d be justified; but that would be illegal and we don’t do anything illegal. If the white man doesn’t want the black man buying rifles and shotguns, then let the government do its job.

That’s all. And don’t let the white man come to you and ask you what you think about what Malcolm says—why, you old Uncle Tom. He would never ask you if he thought you were going to say, “Amen!” No, he is making a Tom out of you.” So, this doesn’t mean forming rifle clubs and going out looking for people, but it is time, in 1964, if you are a man, to let that man know.

If he’s not going to do his job in running the government and providing you and me with the protection that our taxes are supposed to be for, since he spends all those billions for his defense budget, he certainly can’t begrudge you and me spending $12 or $15 for a single-shot, or double-action. I hope you understand. Don’t go out shooting people, but any time—brothers and sisters, and especially the men in this audience; some of you wearing Congressional Medals of Honor, with shoulders this wide, chests this big, muscles that big—any time you and I sit around and read where they bomb a church and murder in cold blood, not some grownups, but four little girls while they were praying to the same God the white man taught them to pray to, and you and I see the government go down and can’t find who did it.

Why, this man—he can find Eichmann hiding down in Argentina somewhere. Let two or three American soldiers, who are minding somebody else’s business way over in South Vietnam, get killed, and he’ll send battleships, sticking his nose in their business. He wanted to send troops down to Cuba and make them have what he calls free elections—this old cracker who doesn’t have free elections in his own country.

No, if you never see me another time in your life, if I die in the morning, I’ll die saying one thing: the ballot or the bullet, the ballot or the bullet.

If a Negro in 1964 has to sit around and wait for some cracker senator to filibuster when it comes to the rights of black people, why, you and I should hang our heads in shame. You talk about a march on Washington in 1963, you haven’t seen anything. There’s some more going down in ’64.

And this time they’re not going like they went last year. They’re not going singing ”We Shall Overcome.” They’re not going with white friends. They’re not going with placards already painted for them. They’re not going with round-trip tickets. They’re going with one way tickets. And if they don’t want that non-nonviolent army going down there, tell them to bring the filibuster to a halt.

The black nationalists aren’t going to wait. Lyndon B. Johnson is the head of the Democratic Party. If he’s for civil rights, let him go into the Senate next week and declare himself. Let him go in there right now and declare himself. Let him go in there and denounce the Southern branch of his party. Let him go in there right now and take a moral stand—right now, not later. Tell him don’t wait until election time. If he waits too long, brothers and sisters, he will be responsible for letting a condition develop in this country which will create a climate that will bring seeds up out of the ground with vegetation on the end of them looking like something these people never dreamed of. In 1964, it’s the ballot or the bullet.

Thank you.

It is worthy to note that on April 12 that same year, Malcolm delivered a similar speech at the King Solomon Baptist Church in Detroit, Michigan.
Malcolm X:  You Left Your Mind in Africa
17 | 5/16/2019, 11:59 a.m.

This Sunday marks the 94th physical day anniversary of the renowned human rights activist, Malcolm X.

This Sunday marks the 94th physical day anniversary of the renowned human rights activist, Malcolm X.  He was named Malcolm Little after being birthed into this world on May 19, 1925, in Omaha, Nebraska. A number of local events have been scheduled to commemorate the occasion.

As his consciousness developed he took on various attributes to reflect that growth—from Malachi Shabazz, Malcolm X, El Hajj Malik El Shabazz and Omowale, just to name a few.  He had lived in Lansing, Michigan; Boston and Harlem before leading the Nation of Islam’s Temple No. 7, located at 102 West 116th Street in Harlem, in 1954, after having spent seven years incarcerated in Massachusetts.

Throughout his brief period he consistently advocated for the masses of African-Americans to relearn their empowering culture and history so that they can be an upright people and be leaders within their own communities. He consistently made the distinction between “the house negro and the field negro,” or the bourgeois elitist and the grassroots community activist he was striving to stimulate.

“You don’t have a peaceful revolution, you don’t have a turn-the-other-cheek revolution. There’s no such thing as a nonviolent revolution,” Malcolm X assessed during his “Message to the Grassroots” dissertation, (Detroit 11.10.63). “Revolution is bloody, revolution is hostile, revolution knows no compromise, revolution overturns and destroys everything that gets in its way.”

Incorporating the “do for self” doctrine advocated by his Garveyite parents, also advocated by the Nation of Islam, he relayed that same ideology to the audiences that gathered at his presentations. He also warned about the docile, subservient “slaves of a mental-death and power,” who would sabotage attempts towards freedom.

“The modern house negro loves his master, he wants to live near him, he’ll pay three times as much as the house is worth just to live near his master, and then brag about ‘I’m the only Negro out here. I’m the only one on my job, in this school.’”

He goes on to compare the field negros of that current time with those during physical slavery times. “If someone comes to you right now and says, ‘Let’s separate,’ you say the same thing that the house negro said on the plantation. ‘What you mean, separate? From America, this good white man? Where you going to get a better job than you get here?’ I mean this is what you say. ‘I ain’t left nothing in Africa,’ That’s what you say. Why you left your mind in Africa!”

Sponsored by Malcolm X’s Organization of Afro-American Unity and the Sons of Africa, the 54th annual pilgrimage to Ferncliff cemetery where the bodies of Malcolm X and his wife Betty Shabazz are interred leaves from the northeast corner of 125th Street and Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Boulevard. this Sunday at 10 a.m. Upon returning to Harlem a couple hours later, the December 12th Movement conducts its regular economic boycott of all businesses along 125th Street from 1 to 4 p.m. There will also be remembrances of Malcolm X taking place at Brooklyn’s Restoration Plaza (3-5 p.m., Sistas’ Place (456 Nostrand Ave., Brooklyn; call 718-398-1766), and The Malcolm X & Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center (3940 Broadway, Manhattan; call 212-568-1341) from 6-9 p.m.
On Malcolm X’s Birthday, New Film Re-imagines Iconic Leader In Modern Times
Malcolm X comes back on his birthday to discuss some of the current social issues that plague our country.

NewsOne Staff

In the history of African Americans who fought for the rights of our people, a conversation cannot go by without mentioning the great Malcolm X. May 19 is the birthday of the great civil rights leader who was killed by an assassin’s bullet. Had he survived, he would have turned 94 today.

In honor of the iconic leader’s birthday, a new short film was produced reimagining Malcolm X being interviewed in 2019 and offering his sage commentary on how much things have changed (or stayed the same) in society. It’s an interesting take on how far the fight for civil rights has come, and how much farther society needs to go to truly attain social justice in American and around the world.

“The social climate in America has been all to [sic] familiar when It comes to African American history,” wrote Todd Anthony, the star of the movie who uploaded the film to YouTube. “The voice of balance has been void to a degree but what if Malcolm X were here today to restore the imbalance? In this film “MALCOLM” directed by Will Catlett (Black Lightening, Love Is) starring Todd Anthony, Malcolm X comes back on 5/19/19 (his birthday) to discuss some of the current social issues that plague our country and to offer solutions for not only the African American culture but America as a whole!”

Aside from Anthony, who also co-wrote the short film with Catlett, the production also stars Jay D. Henderson and Demarius Mack and also features music by the late rapper Nipsey Hussle.

It would have been interesting to see what he’d have to say about President Donald Trump. Since we’ll never know, how about revisiting a couple of his best quotes:

1. If you’re not ready to die for it, take the word ‘freedom’ out of your vocabulary.

— Chicago Defender (November 28, 1962)

2. We declare our right on this earth…to be a human being, to be respected as a human being, to be given the rights of a human being in this society, on this earth, in this day, which we intend to bring into existence by any means necessary.

As Malcolm X evolved away from his past as Detroit Red, he transformed himself first, into a loyal protégé of the Honorable Elijah Muhammad, then, into a world-renowned human rights activist. He never hid behind his legend to avoid speaking of his time as a petty criminal, instead using his story to bolster the confidence of everyday men facing his same struggles. He let them know, in no uncertain terms, that they didn’t have to have a pristine past to make a difference in the present and the future.
15 Little Known Facts About Malcolm X’s Life, From Birth To Death
Today is Malcolm X's birthday. He would have been 94 years old today.

Written By NewsOne Staff

Today is Malcolm X’s birthday. He would have been 94 years old.

Assassinated on  February 21, 1965 in Harlem, he was an important voice in the civil rights movement and lives in our collective memory as an icon in the pantheon of fearless Black leaders.

Here are 15 facts about the man who championed Black human rights across the world.

1. White supremacist groups targeted his father

Malcolm X’s father, the Rev. Earl Little, was a supporter of the pan-African leader Marcus Garvey, which caught the attention of the Ku Klux Klan and other White supremacist groups. Little, a Baptist minister, was under constant threat.

2. Children in his family separated

At age 6, Malcolm X’s father died under mysterious circumstances, likely at the hands of White supremacist. After his mother suffered a nervous breakdown, welfare workers separated Malcolm X and his siblings.

3. White teacher discouraged his ambitions

Although Malcolm X was thriving in school, his eighth-grade teacher discouraged him from pursuing his interest in becoming a lawyer. The teacher suggested that carpentry was a more realistic goal for a young Black man. That prompted Malcolm X to quit school and become a hustler.

4. Detroit Red

Friends nicknamed Malcolm X “Detroit Red” because of the color of hair. As a hustler in Boston and Harlem, he got involved in drug dealing, gambling and pimping.

5. FBI surveillance

During one of his many prison stints, Malcolm X penned a letter to President Harry Truman declaring himself a communist who opposed the Korean War. This caught the attention of the FBI, which began surveillance of Malcolm X that continued for the rest of his life.

6. Satan

Fellow prisoners nicknamed Malcolm X “Satan” because of his hostility toward religion.

7. Memorized the dictionary

His awakening came while serving a prison sentence. Malcolm X worked feverishly to improve his reading and writing skills. To that end, he tied to memorizing the dictionary and improve his penmanship by copying entire pages.

8. Nation of Islam

Part of his awakening was spiritual. Upon leaving prison in 1952, Malcolm X moved to his brother’s house near Detroit, where he attended the local Nation of Islam mosque.

9. Slave name

To make a clean break with White, European culture, Malcolm X dropped his last name (Little), which he said was his “slave name” and replaced it with the letter “X.”

10. Minister Malcolm

He rose rapidly in the Nation of Islam and was named minister of the prestigious Temple 7 in Harlem, where he spent a decade as head of the mosque.

11. Newspaper publisher

Malcolm X founded the newspaper, Muhammad Speaks, which he printed in the basement of his home.  He’s credited with starting the tradition of requiring male members of the Nation to sell newspapers on street corners.

12. Elite university engagements

Recognized as an engaging speaker, elite universities, like Harvard and Oxford, invited Malcolm X to speak and debate.

13. El-Jajj Malik El-Shabazz

Malcolm X changed his name a second time. After splitting from the Nation and converting to traditional Islam, he took the name El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz.

14. Home fire bombed

After breaking away from the Nation, Malcolm X announced that members who remained loyal to Elijah Muhammad, the founder and leader of the Nation, were plotting to kill him. One week before he was killed, someone threw Molotov cocktails into his Queens, New York home.

15. Assassination

The growing hostility between the Nation and Malcolm X ended with gunmen fatally shooting him at the Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965 in Harlem.
Civil Rights Icon Malcolm X Was Born on This Day in 1925
May 19, 2019 at 07:00 am
D.L. CHANDLER | Contributor, F2FA

Born Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebr., the future leader’s parents, Earl and Louise, lived modestly. The elder Little was a Baptist preacher who considered himself a student of the Pan-African philosophies of Marcus Garvey. According to some accounts, Earl Little was also a member of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) and that affiliation put his family at risk. Eventually, the Little family relocated to Lansing, Mich., where Malcolm’s father often clashed with White supremacists.

Mr. Little was killed when Malcolm X was six, a death largely speculated to be a planned hit by White hate groups who wanted to silence the preacher. Even as a man, Malcolm X doubted the story that his father committed suicide. Later, his mother would become pregnant and placed in a mental hospital, suffering a breakdown. From there, Malcolm X and his siblings were shuffled to various foster homes.

A junior school dropout despite being an excellent student, Malcolm X headed to Boston at the age of 14 to live with his half-sister. For seven years, he worked a variety of odd jobs. After returning to Michigan, he moved to New York in 1943 and became entrenched in the crime scene in Harlem’s bustling borough. Engaged in a variety of crimes, including selling drugs and robbery, Malcolm X was also an associate of legendary Black comic Redd Foxx in those times. In 1946, Malcolm X was arrested in Boston for attempting to steal a watch and was given an eight- to- 10-year sentence.

Prison was a transformational moment for the future leader, and his meeting with fellow inmate John Bembry instilled in him a love for reading. At the same time, Malcolm X’s siblings began to write him about a burgeoning religious group known as the National Of Islam (NOI), which preached a brand of Black pride not unfamiliar to him but that he largely shunned. It wasn’t until his brother, Reginald, began to tell him how the NOI’s teaching could liberate him did he begin to tune in.

Corresponding with NOI leader the Hon. Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X chose the “X” surname as many Black Muslims did to signify the eradication of their “slave name” or given family last name. From there, Malcolm X’s rise in the NOI was imminent.

Free from prison on parole, Malcolm X made his first visit to meet Muhammad in 1952. Charged to expand the NOI’s influence among Black Americans, Malcolm X established his minister roots at Temple No. 1 in Detroit before heading Temple No. 11 in Boston on his own. Later, and most famously, Harlem’s Temple No. 7 is where he became a controversial and outspoken figure.

The NOI’s teachings were radical and blasted White supremacy and racism that permeated the air in the 1950s. With a fearless bent and articulate wit, Malcolm X challenged the power structure with unwavering confidence coupled with the fiery rhetoric of Black revolution, becoming a galvanizing force in Black America.

The FBI, worried about his command of the people, began to spy on Malcolm X and his family. malcolm x betty shabazzMalcolm married Betty Sanders (pictured left), a young NOI member, in 1958. He and Mrs Shabazz went on to have six daughters.

Malcolm X’s teachings made him a hero among Blacks and an enemy of Whites. His pro-Black agenda contrasted greatly with the snivelling image of meek people of color cowering under the veil of powerful whites; thus, he continued to rise as a popular media figure and speaker.

Unfortunately, police officials, along with the FBI, began to infiltrate the NOI’s inner circles in order to usurp the powerful leader and cause dissent within the ranks. By 1963, Malcolm was a dominating force but his comments on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and his speculation on government-sponsored killings contrasted greatly with NOI’s view of things.

Other tensions began to arise between Malcolm and Elijah Muhammad. Some suggested that the leader began to eclipse his spiritual father, but there was also some insidious practices that clashed with Malcolm’s philosophies. Muhammad was rumored to have carried on extramarital affairs with several of the NOI’s young women. This angered Malcolm and started a larger rift after the group silenced him from speaking publicly.

On March 8, 1964, Malcolm X left the NOI.

Malcolm X meccaFounding the Organization of Afro-American Unity, Malcolm would expand his social and political circles by working with a wider group of Pan-African advocates and civil rights leaders. That same year, he stepped down from the NOI. Malcolm X briefly met with Martin Luther King Jr. at a Senate hearing over the impending Civil Rights bill. During this time, Sunni Muslims began to meet with the leader and he eventually converted to orthodox Islam.

Making his pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia just a month after leaving the NOI solidified his new worldview once he saw Muslims of all races worshiping in the same spaces. Now officially known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, he returned to America with a renewed sense of purpose.

El-Shabazz also traveled the world, meeting with African leaders who wanted the striking speaker to serve in their government and also continued speaking engagements across America with the Muslim Mosque, Inc., and Organization of Afro-American Unity groups.

Seen as a traitor by the NOI, El-Shabazz began receiving death threats and the like. Current NOI leader Louis Farrakhan reportedly asked for his former ally’s head. Farrakhan even wrote in the NOI’s newspaper “Muhammad Speaks” that El-Shabazz deserved death. By this time, the FBI had fully integrated itself within the NOI and employed several informants.

On February 21, 1965, El-Shabazz was speaking at an Organization of Afro-American Unity at Manhattan’s Audubon Ballroom. Suddenly, a group of men rushed the podium, blasting weapons. El-Shabazz was shot several times and was pronounced dead after arriving at a local hospital shortly after.

He was 39 at the time.

The gunman was NOI member Talmadge Hayer along with two other accomplices, Norman 3X Butler and Thomas 15X Johnson. All three were later convicted.

Autobiograpy of Malcolm XThe death of El-Shabazz raised concerns across the country for leaders such as King and shocked the world considering El-Shabazz was such a beloved leader. Despite his intense speeches in the past and call for racial separatism, El-Shabazz became known as a champion of human rights from the moment he split with the NOI.

The legacy of El-Shabazz is best captured in the posthumous publication, “The Autobiography of Malcolm X: As Told to Alex Haley” (pictured), which was released in 1965. Capturing his entire journey from his early days of crime to spiritual enlightenment, the book serves as the most complete account of the life of Malcolm X.