Kim Il Sung, Founder of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, a photo by panafnewswire on Flickr.
KIM IL SUNG ON THE NEED TO DEVELOP THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT (NAM)
Posted on April 15, 2012 by Alexandra
On the occasion of Kim Il Sung’s 100th birthday, I am blogging this very important speech where he strongly promotes the unity of all anti-imperialist Global South forces. Definitely worth a read, if for no other reason than to challenge your prejudices about the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea and its founding President!
AGENT OF CHANGE
June 20, 1986
Today’s joint meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Workers’ Party of Korea and the Central People’s Committee of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has discussed a number of questions concerning the non-aligned movement, in anticipation of the forthcoming 8th Summit Conference of Non-aligned Nations.
The 8th Summit Conference of Non-aligned Nations is to be held this year, an important year which marks the 25th anniversary of the inauguration of the non-aligned movement. We hope that this conference will be a historic meeting in upholding the principles and ideal of the non-aligned movement and in the further development of this movement.
During the past 25 years the situation both within and outside the non-aligned movement has been complex and the movement has been beset with many difficulties, but it has made rapid advances by overcoming these difficulties.
The non-aligned movement, which was inaugurated with a membership of 25 newly-independent countries 25 years ago, has now developed into a very extensive movement with more than 100 newly-emergent member nations and into an organized political force. It has a great influence on revolutionary change in the world and on international political life.
The history of the non-aligned movement clearly shows its vitality as an independent political force which is separate from any bloc, and patently proves that its policy is right.
Today the non-aligned movement is faced with a heavy task: it must carry out its honourable mission by developing itself further so as to meet the requirements of the prevailing situation.
The noble mission which was undertaken by the non-aligned movement at the time of its inauguration was and always has been to destroy imperialism and colonialism, end domination and subjugation in whatever form, oppose aggression and intervention, preserve peace and security, exercise national sovereignty, and achieve the freedom of social and economic development. This represents the aspirations and desire of the peoples of all countries and all nations for independence and prosperity and for the building of a peaceful new world which is free from war.
Today, on the international scene, we witness developments which run counter to the aspirations and desire of the peoples of the non-aligned countries. The non-aligned movement is facing a grave challenge from the imperialists and reactionaries of all types.
The peoples of the non-aligned countries and progressive people throughout the world expect that the 8th Summit Conference of Non-aligned Nations to be held in Harare this year, will be an epoch-making event in carrying out the important tasks of the movement, and therefore they are showing great interest in this conference.
In the prevailing situation it is very important to increase the strength of the non-aligned movement in every way and enhance its role further in the international arena.
With the 8th Summit Conference of Non-aligned Nations forthcoming, I would like to speak about some questions which are important to the strengthening and development of the nonaligned movement.
THE PRESENT INTERNATIONAL SITUATION AND INDEPENDENCE IN THE FACE OF IMPERIALISM
Today the international situation is very complex and tense.
The main trend of our time is as ever along the road of independence and sovereignty, peace and progress, but there is also an adverse current of domination and subjugation, war and destruction.
In many parts of the world acts of aggression and conflicts are taking place frequently, trampling upon the sovereignty of countries and nations and destroying peace and security. Social and economic stagnation, catastrophes and instability continue, threatening people’s existence. The people want peace, but international tension is increasing daily, the danger of war is growing, and various acute and complex problems are arising one after another in the international
This situation, which is contrary to the common desire of progressive people throughout the world, is due to the intensified imperialist manoeuvres for aggression and plunder.
Aggression and plunder are inherent aspects of imperialism, and imperialism thrives on them.
Imperialism is the product of aggression and plunder, and it has grown fat on ceaseless aggression and plunder. Since the emergence of imperialism mankind has suffered disasters of recurrent aggression and war, and has been deprived of immeasurable amounts of property, wealth and the fruit of labour.
As monopoly capital grows, so its tentacles of aggression and plunder are extended overseas. This is an inevitable outcome and a law of the development of capitalism.
There is no limit to the wild ambition and greed of imperialism. The fatter it is and the fuller its stomach, the more ambitious and greedy imperialism grows, and the more persistent and violent its acts of aggression and plunder will become.
The method of its aggression and plunder has changed with the progress of time.
Today the imperialists are employing mainly neocolonialism to invade, dominate and plunder other countries.
After the Second World War the imperialist colonial system crumbled, and the peoples of many Asian, African and Latin-American countries cast off the yoke of colonialism and embarked on the road of independent development. In this new age the old method of imperialist colonial rule no longer worked. Without forming an alliance, it became impossible for imperialism to maintain its position and dominate and plunder other countries. Modern imperialism, which was realigned into a united force headed by US imperialism after the Second World War, has been dominating and plundering newly-independent countries and the developing nations by means of neocolonialism which is less obvious and more crafty.
By entangling many developing countries in the neocolonialist web of so-called “aid” and “cooperation”, the imperialists now have seized the economic lifelines of these countries, made them nothing more than their sources of raw materials and their markets and grown rich by squeezing tremendous amounts of profit out of them. Because of the imperialists’ neocolonialist policy of enslavement and because of the old, unfair international economic order imposed on them, many of the non-aligned countries and developing nations have not, in spite of their political independence, attained independent development and prosperity and have not relieved the hunger and poverty of their people. As time passes the gap between the wealth of the Western imperialist powers and the developing countries is widening. The tendency of the rich countries to grow richer, and the poor countries to grow poorer, is more pronounced on a world scale.
The imperialists are militarizing their economies and stepping up their manoeuvres of aggression and war in order to meet the unsatisfied greed of the monopolies for overseas expansion and to realize their wild dream of world domination.
The imperialists are directing the spearhead of their aggression at the non-aligned countries and other newly-emergent nations.
The US and other imperialists resort to ceaseless acts of armed intervention, subversion and destruction against the non-aligned and developing countries. Taking advantage of border disputes and various other complex issues, which are a consequence of their colonial rule, the imperialists are driving wedges between these countries, stimulating feud and antagonism between them in an attempt to make them fight among themselves so as to take advantage of the situation. In carrying out their aggressive schemes against non-aligned and developing countries, the imperialists frequently use as shock forces the Israeli Zionists, the South African racists and other stooges which they have trained and tamed.
Because of these acts by the imperialists, the peoples of non-aligned and developing countries suffer greatly and experience disasters and are confronted by many difficulties and obstacles in building a new society.
All the facts show that the imperialists are arch-aggressors and arch-marauders, the destroyers of world peace and security and the biggest obstacle to social progress.
It is an urgent necessity of our time to fight against imperialism and for an independent world.
The non-aligned movement is, in essence, a movement against imperialism and for independence. It can only achieve its noble aims and realize its ideal through the struggle against imperialism and for independence. Intensifying this struggle is the way to preserve world peace and security, defend the people’s interests and their right to independence, consolidate national independence and bring about social progress.
The peoples of the non-aligned countries and all the progressive people throughout the world must unite solidly with each other and develop a powerful struggle against imperialism and for independence.
First, they must form an anti-imperialist common front on a world scale and intensify the struggle against imperialism.
Imperialism is the common enemy of the peoples of the non-aligned nations and the progressive people throughout the world. The allied imperialist force is challenging the just cause of the people for independence, peace and social progress. No country in the world is free from the threat of aggression and intervention by imperialism.
The people can only oppose and defeat the allied imperialist force by a united effort. It is the world’s progressive people uniting into an anti-imperialist force that the imperialists fear more than anything else. The united strength of the people is unconquerable.
The peoples of non-aligned nations and the progressive people throughout the world must form a close union within the ranks of the anti-imperialist struggle and take concerted action in this struggle for their common cause of independence, peace, and social progress.
Second, they must fight against imperialism and for sovereignty stubbornly and on a full scale in every field of politics, defence, economy, ideology and culture.
The imperialists are working towards invading and dominating other countries in every possible way and in different fields. They are trying to invade other countries and establish political domination over them by resorting to military force and underhanded methods.They are also scheming to subordinate them economically and infiltrate them ideologically and culturally by means of surplus goods, unfair economic relations, decadent Western culture and bourgeois way of life.
The non-aligned nations and all the progressive countries must increase their vigilance over not only the overt aggressive moves of the imperialists but also their underhanded moves and crafty stratagems which take various forms. They must thwart them at every step.
The anti-imperialist struggle must be waged not only on a full scale in all areas but also tenaciously without being given up half-complete.
The anti-imperialist struggle must not be suspended or weakened even for a little while.
Suspending the struggle means retreat, and retreat will result in defeat. The anti-imperialist struggle must be intensified continuously, without giving the enemy a breathing space. It must be carried to the end until the final victory is won.
Third, we must fight energetically to make the whole world independent.
The people who have taken their destiny in their own hands are advancing on the road of independence in the face of all forms of domination and subjugation. This is the main trend of our time. The struggle for global independence is the common cause of the peoples of all countries who advocate Chajusong.
An independent world is a world where all forms of colonialism have been abolished completely, and where all countries and all nations are provided with complete sovereignty.
It is only when the whole world has become independent that all the peoples on earth can build a prosperous new society where they can lead free and happy lives having cast off the yoke of domination and subjugation and that they can build a new world where mankind can live in peace by putting an end to aggression and war.
The struggle for global independence is a decisive showdown between the anti-imperialist independent forces and the forces of imperialist domination.
The peoples of the non-aligned nations and those of all countries who advocate Chajusong must fight for global independence.
THE PREVENTION OF A NUCLEAR WAR AND THE ABOLITION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS
The prevention of a nuclear war and the preservation of world peace and security is a burning issue facing humanity at the present time.
To dominate the world by force, wielding nuclear weapons, is the world strategy which the imperialists have persisted in since the Second World War. The danger from this strategy is growing as the days go by.
At present, the imperialists are building up arms on a large scale and accelerating the production and development of nuclear weapons in every possible way. As a result of their moves towards war, a large number of nuclear weapons have been deployed in many countries and in many parts of the world, nuclear fleets are constantly afloat on the Pacific, Indian and other oceans, nuclear armed forces are being massed particularly in the major regions of natural resources and in places that are strategic from a military point of view and the number of new nuclear bases continues to increase. Military exercises and military activities which might lead to the outbreak of a nuclear war are being conducted ceaselessly on land, and in the territorial airspace and waters of non-aligned nations and in the surrounding areas.
In recent years the United States has produced a very dangerous “Star Wars” project in an attempt to extend the arms race into outer space, and is going to produce and deploy binary chemical weapons in different parts of the world.
The dark cloud of a nuclear war hangs heavily over all the continents, and it threatens the very existence of our planet. The danger of another world war, a nuclear war, exists in Asia and Europe, in the Middle East and Southern Africa, in the Caribbean region and the Indian Ocean and throughout the world.
Today the danger of a nuclear war is most serious on the Korean peninsula.
More than 1,000 nuclear weapons of different types including nuclear bombs have been deployed in south Korea. The density of nuclear deployment in south Korea is four times as great as that in the member nations of NATO. With the exception of the NATO member nations, south Korea is the only part of the world into which US nuclear weapons are shipped on a large scale. South Korea, the US colony and military base, has become a huge nuclear arsenal and the largest nuclear outpost in the Far East.
While bringing a large number of nuclear weapons to south Korea, the United States frequently stages nuclear war exercises in and around south Korea by mobilizing different kinds of nuclear weapons and large military forces. As a result, the danger of nuclear war is most acute in south Korea more than anywhere.
If a nuclear war breaks out in our country, it will easily spread throughout the world, then not only the Korean people but also the whole of mankind will suffer a nuclear holocaust.
The survival of humanity has never been in such serious jeopardy as it is today. The destructive power of atomic weapons that are now stockpiled on the earth is more than one million times as strong as that of the nuclear bomb dropped on Hiroshima by the United States during the Second World War. The world has the constant fear that a nuclear war can be triggered by the smallest incident.
It is the solemn requirement of our time and the unanimous desire of mankind that another world war, a thermonuclear war, be prevented and that peace and security be preserved.
The non-aligned movement is an anti-war peace force, and the policy of non-alignment is a just, peace-loving policy. The non-aligned movement must step up its activities in every way, regarding its major task to be the prevention of another world war, a thermonuclear war, and thus preserve world peace.
First, it must fight to stop the arms race and to effect the complete abolition of all armaments, and of nuclear weapons in particular.
The arms race and the nuclear weapons deployed in many parts of the world are the basic factor in the increase of international tension and of the danger of a nuclear war. So long as the arms drive continues, and so long as nuclear weapons exist on the earth, the danger of a nuclear war will not go away and mankind cannot be free of the constant nuclear threat.
The non-aligned countries must give priority to the abolition of nuclear weapons and fight to prevent their production and stockpiling and abolish them completely once and for all. The existing nuclear arsenals must be frozen, nuclear weapons reduced drastically and abolished completely so as to eliminate finally the danger of a nuclear war. Stopping nuclear tests is the first step towards ending the nuclear arms race and abolishing nuclear weapons. Non-aligned countries must play the role of a catalyst in getting steps taken in international law to completely ban testing nuclear weapons in any form.
Outer space must only be used for peaceful purposes, not as a new theatre of the arms race. The non-aligned nations must, on no account, tolerate any attempt to extend the arms race into outer space.
The non-aligned countries must compel those countries with nuclear weapons to give a commitment to refrain from resorting to a nuclear threat against those without nuclear weapons. They must also see that measures are taken as soon as possible to make provision for the abolition of nuclear weapons by steps taken in international law.
In order to abolish nuclear weapons and prevent a nuclear war, we must create nuclear-free, peace zones in many regions of the world and extend them all the time.
In many regions of the world good proposals are being made to create nuclear-free, peace zones. The non-aligned countries must give active support to all these proposals. Those countries which have nuclear weapons should respect the nuclear-free, peace zones and refrain from deploying nuclear arms in them.
The Government of our Republic and the Korean people will struggle energetically to make the Korean peninsula and the rest of Northeast Asia a nuclear-free, peace zone and, in unity with the peace-loving people of the world, make every effort to create and expand these zones in other parts of the world.
In order to remove the danger of another world war and defend world peace and security, it is imperative to abolish nuclear weapons and ban the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons.
At present, positive proposals for universal and complete disarmament are being made and initiatives taken in this regard, including those for the stage-by-stage abolition of nuclear weapons so that they are completely removed by the end of this century and those for refraining from an arms race in outer space. These are important proposals and initiatives in removing the danger of a nuclear war and preserving world peace and security. The non-aligned countries must make every effort to put into effect these positive proposals and initiatives for averting the danger of a nuclear war.
Second, we must fight against the imperialist policy of military blocs and of increasing military bases.
Military blocs are footholds for imperialist aggression and war, and the aggressive foreign military bases and troops are the means to dominate and control those countries in which they are sited. It is only when all military blocs and means of aggression and war have been eliminated from the earth that world peace can be lasting and durable.
It is an important task of the non-aligned movement to resist the presence of foreign military bases and foreign troops and fight for the disbandment of military blocs.
The non-aligned countries should make strong demands for the withdrawal of aggressive foreign military bases and troops and should not offer their territories to major powers as military and supply bases.
The imperialists are now going to form new military blocs in many regions including Asia and the Pacific, while maintaining and strengthening the existing ones. The non-aligned countries must resolutely oppose these schemes to form new military blocs and fight to disband all the aggressive military blocs.
If the imperialists’ aggressive military blocs are disbanded, those of the socialist countries will become unnecessary.
The non-aligned countries should not join any military bloc or any military pact, nor should they allow the imperialists to engage in war games, particularly nuclear war games, in their territories and the surrounding areas.
We strongly demand that the US should stop its manoeuvres in south Korea and the surrounding area to provoke a nuclear war and that it should withdraw its troops and military bases and weapons of mass destruction including nuclear arms from south Korea immediately.
The non-aligned countries must give active support and encouragement to the peoples of all the countries who are struggling for the removal of aggressive foreign military bases and troops from their territories.
Third, we must develop a powerful anti-war, anti-nuclear, peace movement.
The powerful anti-war, anti-nuclear, peace movement which is going on in Asia and Europe and many other parts of the world is dealing a strong blow at the imperialists’ war policy and their efforts to build up nuclear armament.
The non-aligned countries must expose and strongly condemn the imperialists’ policy of aggression and war, and their dangerous moves to provoke a nuclear war, and stifle their every move wherever they have stretched out their tentacles. The non-aligned countries must also refuse to follow the imperialists’ policy of aggression and war and to act as minions of war.
The non-aligned countries must strengthen solidarity with the anti-war, anti-nuclear, peace movement and render support and encouragement to the movement in every possible way.
All non-aligned countries must not tolerate any violation of the recognized regulations and code of practice for international relations and must make ever stronger condemnation of such violations.
This is an international year of peace. The peace-loving people throughout the world have the unanimous desire that this year will bring new advancement in the removal of tension and in the elimination of the root cause of aggression and war throughout the world.
Today the danger of another world war, a thermonuclear war, is great; but war is not absolutely inevitable. If the non-aligned countries fight in unity with all the anti-war peace forces of the world, they will be able to remove the danger of a nuclear war and preserve peace and security.
We consider that the non-aligned countries should pay foremost attention to the abolition of all armaments, and nuclear arms in particular, as they prepare for the 8th Summit Conference of Nonaligned Nations so that the conference will provide a new opportunity to prevent another world war, a thermonuclear war, and ease international tension.
THE ELIMINATION OF COLONIALISM AND RACISM AND THE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE CAUSE OF NATIONAL LIBERATION
It is an important task of the struggle against imperialism and for independence that colonialism and racism be eliminated and the cause of national liberation be accomplished.
This is the age of Chajusong. The people who were once oppressed have emerged as masters of the world and are pressing forward with history. With the tide of the age of Chajusong the imperialist colonial system is finally being eliminated from the world; the peoples of many countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America have achieved political independence and are making rapid advances along the road of creating a new life.
However, the imperialist colonial system still survives and colonial slavery is being imposed upon many people. This is a serious contradiction which cannot be tolerated in the age of Chajusong. Today the peoples of colonies and dependent countries are fighting fiercely under the banner of freedom and independence, and dealing a telling blow at the imperialists and colonialists.
In an attempt to maintain their crumbling colonial system by every possible means, the imperialist are putting down the people’s cause of liberation by force of arms and, at the same time, encouraging racism in every way. They proclaimed South Africa and Israel as their “friendly nations”, as their “allies”, and are strengthening what they call “cooperation” with these countries in politics, diplomacy, economy, finance, military affairs and in the nuclear field in particular.
Under the active aegis of the imperialists, the South African racists and Israeli Zionists overtly pursue the racist and expansionist policy of aggression in all-out opposition to the cause of national liberation.
The South African racist regime pursues the vicious policy of apartheid, of racial discrimination, and the policy of brutal repression. It is trampling underfoot even the basic freedom and rights of the South African people and is keeping them subjugated to the white people, who are the minority. The South African racists have occupied Namibia illegally and are tightening up their colonial rule, resorting to the bloody suppression of the struggle of the Namibian people for national independence and national liberation. The South African racist regime continues to perpetrate acts of aggression, intervention and state terrorism against Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and other frontline countries, persisting in their scheme of destroying the peace of these countries and overthrowing their legitimate governments. The recent air, ground and naval attack by the South African racists on Zimbabwe, Zambia, Botswana and Angola clearly revealed their aggressive nature and brutality in the eyes of the world.
In order to realize their ambition to establish a “Great Zionist Empire” in the Middle East, the Israeli Zionists have occupied Arab lands and are pursuing the policy of establishing colonies. Under the active patronage of the imperialists they are flagrantly violating the national rights of the Palestinian and other Arab people, growing more blatantly ferocious and arrogant as each day passes.
Imperialists and colonialists are standing in the way of the people’s struggle for freedom and independence in Central America and the Caribbean region as well. They resort to overt military threats, intervention and destructive activities against the countries in these areas which are fighting in defence of their political independence and for independent development.
Under the present situation in which colonialists and racists are trying to stifle the cause of national liberation and intensify their colonial exploitation and domination, the progressive people of the world are faced with the important task of stepping up the struggle to eliminate colonialism and racism by a united effort. It is only when all forms of colonialism and racism have been eliminated from the globe that neither imperialist North America nor imperialist Western Europe will exist any longer and that the people’s liberation from the yoke of imperialism will be complete and final.
All the non-aligned countries must fight more energetically to eliminate colonialism and racism once and for all and to accomplish the cause of national liberation and must give every possible support and encouragement to the oppressed people who are struggling for national liberation and independence.
First, we must intensify together the struggle to put an end to the racist system of South Africa.
South Africa is a major stronghold of colonialism. South African racism is the cruellest form of colonialism. It is the major obstacle to the complete liberation and decolonialization of Africa. It is clear that without putting an end to the policy of apartheid in South Africa it would be impossible to accomplish the cause of national liberation, stabilize the situation in this area and defend world peace and security.
The non-aligned countries must strengthen their joint efforts to support the South African people’s struggle for freedom and liberation, the Namibian people’s struggle against occupation by South Africa and for self-determination and independence, and the struggle of the peoples of the frontline countries and their neighbours against invasion and intervention by South Africa and in defence of national independence.
The non-aligned countries must give political, diplomatic, material, financial, military and all other forms of support to the South African, Namibian and other peoples who are fighting in Southern Africa and adopt active measures to isolate completely the racist regime of South Africa on the international scene. The non-aligned movement should make sure that all its member nations and international organizations break off relations with the South African racist regime in all spheres of politics, economy, culture, diplomacy and military affairs.
Second, we must foil the expansionist, aggressive schemes of the Israeli Zionists.
Zionism is a form of racism and colonialism. The aggressive, expansionist policy of the Israeli Zionists is the main factor obstructing the triumphant advance of the cause of national liberation in the Middle East. Without thwarting Israel’s aggressive schemes it would be impossible for the Middle-East countries to achieve their independence, territorial integrity and progress nor would it be possible to guarantee lasting world peace and security.
The non-aligned countries must strongly denounce the criminal acts perpetrated by the Israeli Zionists in their opposition to the Arab people and in their efforts to destroy the liberation cause of the Palestinian people. They must continue to extend active support and solidarity to the Palestinian and Arab peoples in their just cause. They should regard the struggle of the Palestinian and other Arab people as their common cause and take strong joint action to reject Israel in the fields of diplomacy, economy, military affairs, culture and marine and air transport in accordance with the decision of the 7th Summit Conference of Non-aligned Nations.
The just cause of the Palestinian and other Arab people for the restoration of land lost to them and of all the legitimate rights of Palestine, including the establishment of an independent country, must be accomplished. The Israeli Zionists must abandon their policy of expansion and annexation and withdraw from all the occupied Arab land immediately.
The United States must stop giving the Israeli Zionists political and diplomatic support and military and economic aid, take their hands off the Middle East and discard their ambition for dominating this region.
Third, we must strengthen solidarity with those people who are fighting for independence, sovereignty and to build a new society.
It is a duty common to all the non-aligned countries to give active support and encouragement to those peoples who are fighting for national independence and liberation.
The struggles of the people to win independence and sovereignty and build a new society are linked by supporting and supplementing each other. If Africa is not free, Asia and Latin America cannot be free; if the struggle for independence, sovereignty and for the building of a new society in Asia is successful, the conditions for the liberation struggle of the African and Latin-American people will be favourable.
The non-aligned countries must give strong support to the struggle of the peoples of colonies for national liberation and independence and extend more active encouragement to the Asian, African and Latin-American peoples who are fighting against imperialist aggression and intervention and in defence of national independence and sovereignty.
The non-aligned countries must condemn the manoeuvres of the imperialists and their stooges to stamp out the people’s just cause of creating a new life, completely isolate them and never tolerate their aggression and interference, pressure and terrorism against sovereign states.
If the imperialists are allowed to infringe upon the non-aligned nations’ sovereignty as they please, their behaviour in the future may be even more arrogant, contemptuous of the fate of the whole non-aligned movement. The non-aligned movement must defend its member nations’ sovereignty, independence and their cause of building a new society from imperialist aggression and interference.
The downfall of imperialism and colonialism and the triumph of the people’s liberation cause are the historical trend that no force can ever check.
It is only when the non-aligned countries struggle energetically to eliminate imperialism and colonialism from the earth that the final victory of the national-liberation cause will be hastened.
SOUTH-SOUTH COOPERATION AND ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE
South-South cooperation is a noble way for the developing countries to strengthen their economic independence and achieve complete economic freedom through close economic and technical cooperation.
Only when they are economically independent can the developing countries free their peoples from backwardness and poverty, starvation and disease, the consequences of imperialist colonial rule, and consolidate the political independence which they have already won.
A nation which is dependent on another country economically is bound to be politically subordinate. Economic dependence inevitably leads to political dependence and economic subordination results in political subordination.
The struggle for economic independence is a second liberation struggle to remove economic backwardness and poverty and achieve complete national sovereignty.
The peoples of the developing countries have to take it upon themselves to attain economic independence. The imperialists never present developing countries with economic independence. The non-aligned and developing countries must pave the way for survival by effecting South-South cooperation under the banner of collective self-reliance and build their independent national economies.
Today the international economic situation is changing to the disadvantage of developing countries. In these circumstances it is all the more urgent to effect South-South cooperation. When their people are faced with the threat of ever-worsening hunger and disease, the developing countries ought to pool their efforts and support and cooperate with each other.
At the moment the leaders of many non-aligned and developing countries are calling for close cooperation among these nations, insisting that they should shape their destiny independently and on their own responsibility. This is quite natural.
If they realize South-South cooperation, the developing countries will be able to build up sufficient strength to countervail and negotiate with the developed countries, and begin a period favourable to establishing a new international economic order.
There are many real situations and opportunities for South-South cooperation. The nonaligned and developing countries have vast territories rich in raw materials and have acquired valuable experience and expertise in the course of creating a new life. If they mobilize their manpower and material resources to the full and build up economic cooperation and exchange on the principle of providing for each other’s needs, the developing countries will find solutions to the difficult and complex problems that arise in building a new life without asking for the help of the developed countries. Historical experience shows that even poor and backward countries can achieve great things if they combine efforts.
The non-aligned and developing countries must start in those areas where cooperation and exchange are feasible and urgent and extend cooperation and exchange in every way so as to free their peoples from backwardness and poverty, hunger and disease and achieve economic independence.
First, South-South cooperation must be expanded and developed in the sphere of food and agriculture.
Solving the problem of food and agriculture is of tremendous significance in pressing ahead with the building of a new society and promoting the people’s welfare.
Cooperation and exchange in agriculture must be centred on laying on one’s own production foundations soundly with a view to attaining self-sufficiency in food in a short time.
It is a good and necessary thing that the UN and other international organizations are now taking steps to help some famine-stricken nations.
If the developing countries are to find a fundamental solution to the food problem, every country must increase grain production substantially by growing good crops. Today many of the non-aligned and developing countries are unable to rid themselves of the hunger and poverty that are a result of imperialist colonial rule. This is not because farm lands are inadequate, but because they cannot raise good crops on account of lack of irrigation and machinery and technology.
We believe that firstly we must increase cooperation in the field of irrigation construction.
For the developing countries to prevent damage from drought and ensure a good and regular harvest, it is necessary to establish an irrigation system. Most of the non-aligned and developing countries, including the African countries, have vast water resources and the future for irrigation construction is promising.
It will be reasonable to work out together a “ten-year plan for irrigation construction in the developing countries” and a “ten-year plan for irrigation construction in Africa”, to establish an organization which coordinates cooperation in irrigation construction, and also set up irrigation enterprises jointly so as to put cooperation into effect in this field.
The non-aligned and developing countries must also cooperate closely with each other in their efforts to improve the faming method.
The most important way to increase grain production in the developing countries is to improve the farming method and grow crops scientifically and technologically. Improving the farming method alone will mean a great increase in agricultural production even though a large investment is not required.
The developing countries must create a new farming method that suits the topographical and climatic conditions of every zone and country and must make the good experience gained in this improvement widely known.
The non-aligned and developing countries must establish wide cooperation and exchange with each other in the field of seed selection and production.
Those countries whose technology and experience are good in this field must supply the technology on seed selection and production to other developing countries and provide progenitors where needed.
In order to increase grain production, it is necessary to intensify joint study and mutual cooperation in the field of agricultural science.
The non-aligned and developing countries must start a joint venture in agriculture.
A joint venture in agriculture is one reasonable way for the developing countries, including the African countries, to solve the food problem. If they undertake an extensive agricultural joint venture the developing countries will not only be able to save the people from starvation by a rapid increase in agricultural production but also strengthen the foundations of agricultural production.
In this venture, it is important to organize and operate farms under joint management. These farms can be run in such a way that those countries which are backward in agricultural technology provide land and labour and those whose agricultural technology is developed supply farm machinery and fertilizers, agricultural chemicals and other farming implements and technical knowledge.
It will be an effective measure for the non-aligned and developing countries to organize joint enterprises for the production of farm machinery and materials in order to satisfy their needs for farm machinery, irrigation facilities, fertilizers and agricultural chemicals. For the time being, it will be worthwhile for those developing countries which are relatively backward in expertise to build farm machinery factories with the help of the more experienced countries, to increase the production of cattle-drawn farm machines as well as other medium and small farm machines and implements and then use them.
We will intensify cooperation with the non-aligned and developing countries and the African countries in particular, directing the main effort to ensuring that these countries lay solid foundations for agricultural production and attain self-sufficiency in food.
Secondly, cooperation and exchange must be promoted widely in the field of public health.
South-South cooperation in this field must be concentrated on solving the most urgent problems arising in providing health care for the people of every developing country until the year 2000.
The one problem which must be solved above all else in saving the peoples of non-aligned and developing countries from disease is to eliminate epidemics and helminthiases.
The non-aligned and developing countries must draw on the valuable experience gained so far in health care, at the same time as cooperating actively to find more effective ways and means in this sphere.
In the first place, it is essential to develop medical science through a good combination of modern and traditional medicine, of modern treatment and folk remedy and thus strengthen cooperation in this field.
If South-South cooperation in health care is to be substantial, efforts must be channelled into solving the problem of a shortage of medicines.
The non-aligned and developing countries must increase cooperation to develop the production of preventive medicines and also improve cooperation for the production of basic medicines. Cooperation to build up medicine-producing bases in particular must be intensified. The establishment of joint venture pharmaceutical enterprises is an important way of cooperating effectively in this matter. If joint venture pharmaceutical enterprises are to be built and developed, it will be advisable to sign agreements on specializing in the production of medicines on a worldwide scale, in consideration of raw material resources, production capacity and the demand for medical supplies in each country.
The running of joint venture hospitals will also be an effective means of cooperation in the sphere of public health.
Thirdly, it is necessary to take practical action to expand and develop cooperation and exchange among the non-aligned and developing countries according to the programme for economic cooperation which has already been worked out.
First of all, in order to settle the problem of finance, a stumbling block in South-South cooperation, and to encourage mutual accommodation, it is necessary to build the Bank of the South and adopt whatever measures are needed to promote trade and cooperation in the field of finance and currency.
Establishing a Global System of Trade Preferences between developing countries is of great importance in the improvement of trade among these countries. The non-aligned and developing countries must make joint efforts to introduce this system as early as possible.
It is absolutely necessary to increase political support for South-South cooperation in order to implement the action programme for economic cooperation. The non-aligned and developing countries must discuss the matter of South-South cooperation at high-level talks and develop relevant conditions so that practical measures can be adopted.
The non-aligned countries must pay due attention to coordinating the economic cooperation programme of the non-aligned movement and the economic cooperation programme of the Group of 77 and also to adjusting the cooperation items on the economic cooperation programme of the non-aligned movement in a rational way.
The non-aligned and developing countries must ceaselessly explore and develop positive ways and means of widening South-South cooperation and increasing its effectiveness in line with the demands that arise in practice.
They must overcome any difficulties in developing economic and technical cooperation by displaying the spirit of mutual cooperation and solidarity to the highest degree.
If they effect South-South cooperation completely in agriculture, public health and other essential areas, they will make great strides in their efforts to wipe out poverty and disease and win economic independence. In addition, if economic and technical cooperation between developing countries proves successful, the economic situation throughout the world will improve, and this will then have a positive effect on North-South relations.
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A NEW INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORDER
One of the important tasks confronting the non-aligned and developing countries today is to do away with the old international economic order and to establish a new fair one based on the principles of independence, equality and mutual benefit.
In the past these countries mapped out a joint strategy for the establishment of a new international economic order and have fought to put it into effect. As a result of the energetic efforts made by these countries, many international conferences including a special session of the UN General Assembly have adopted a declaration, and programmes of action, for establishing a new international economic order, taken the relevant steps and formed various international organizations.
However, owing to the unfair standpoint and attitude of the developed capitalist countries in maintaining the old international economic order, the struggle of the developing countries to establish the new international economic order has not made any real progress.
The developed capitalist countries are reluctant to give up meekly their monopolistic position in international economic relations, nor do they accept the proposal of the developing countries for negotiations to establish a new international economic order.
Relying as ever on the old international economic order, the imperialists are plundering the developing countries of their natural resources and paying only a pittance for the results of the peoples’ labour and obstructing the economic development of these countries. Protective trade and the high-interest policy pursued by the developed countries along with the continually worsening terms of trade and the massive increase in foreign debts of the developing countries are having a serious effect on the social and economic development of the non-aligned and developing countries. Because of the unfair international economic order, the economies of the developing countries are growing weaker and becoming stagnant. The economic situation in the African countries in particular is worsening.
The long-drawn-out world economic crisis and the difficult economic situation in the developing countries for which the unjust economic order is responsible are making the world situation more unstable and threatening justice and peace.
In reality, without abolishing the old economic order, the product of the colonial system and the lever of imperialist exploitation and plunder, it will be impossible for the non-aligned and developing countries to free themselves from international exploitation and plunder and then develop.
It is only when they reorganize the wide range of unfair and unreasonable economic relations in all branches of trade, finance, currency and so on that the developing countries can eliminate the source of international exploitation and create favourable conditions for their economic development.
The non-aligned and developing countries must fight to establish a new international economic order in accordance with their joint strategy.
First, they must continue to make patient efforts to promote negotiations for the establishment of a new international economic order.
An important factor in implementing their strategy for negotiations is for the non-aligned and developing countries to take concerted action. The non-aligned and developing countries must together lay down the strategy for negotiations to suit the international economic situation, explore procedures and ways for negotiations and effectively coordinate the policy and stand of negotiations so as to enhance the position of negotiations still higher. For this purpose, it would be a realistic idea to set up a standing Ministerial Committee of the non-aligned and other developing countries as recommended by the Foreign Ministers’ Conference of the Coordinating Bureau held in New Delhi.
The establishment of a new international economic order will be beneficial for the developed countries as well. The developed countries should accept the just proposal of the non-aligned and developing countries for holding negotiations on a worldwide scale to establish a new international economic order.
Secondly, efforts should be directed to establishing a fair and stable international system of finance and currency.
The economic difficulties of the developing countries and the world economic crisis have much to do with the unfair international system of finance and currency. This system must be reorganized to meet the needs of today and in favour of economic progress for the developing countries.
A new international system of finance and currency must be a fair one capable of facilitating economic cooperation on a worldwide scale and of revitalizing the world economy by eliminating the privileges and arbitrariness of the developed capitalist countries and by guaranteeing the stability of monetary circulation and the financial conditions for international trade. To this end, international financial agencies should adopt such resolutions as to guarantee equality between developing and developed countries, establish a stable and realistic exchange rate system, create international liquidity according to demand and distribute it fairly between the developing and the developed countries.
The foreign debt problem of the developing countries, too, must be solved fairly and completely, thereby ensuring their social and economic development and stability. The non-aligned and developing countries should, at an early date, hold an international conference on finance and currency for development to provide an occasion for setting up a new international system of finance and currency.
Thirdly, an active effort must be made to establish a new system of trade.
At present a non-equivalent exchange is being made as ever in trade between the developing countries and the developed countries. The developing countries sell raw materials at low prices and buy manufactured goods at exorbitant prices, and the share that manufactured goods make up in the exports of these countries is decreasing continually. The result is that the trade deficit of the developing countries is increasing all the time and their economic difficulties are becoming more serious.
The non-aligned and developing countries should prevent the fluctuations in price of primary products and increase their earnings from exports by remodelling the unfair price system in trade and establishing a fair and profitable price system for primary products. What is important here is to strengthen the existing producers’ associations, while at the same time forming new associations and enhancing their role.
The setting up of a common fund for the general plan of primary products will be an important step for the developing countries to stabilize prices and income through exporting primary products. In order to ensure that the common fund is inaugurated as early as possible, the developing countries will have to hasten their approval of an agreement for establishing this common fund.
The developed countries must give up their protectionist policy and make the markets more open to the developing countries. They should also remove the tariff and non-tariff barriers for major products of the developing countries, take measures to stabilize export incomes for these countries and allow them to increase their share of the processing, sale, distribution and transportation of raw materials and products.
The preferential treatment that is given to the products of the developing countries must be further improved, and international efforts be made to establish fair trade principles and regulations.
The developing countries should not allow the developed countries to use the system of general preferences as a means of putting pressure on them, but fight against any act of encroachment upon their permanent sovereignty over natural resources.
If the non-aligned and developing countries wage a vigorous struggle together to establish a new fair international economic order, the developed countries will have to comply, in the long run, with the demands of the developing countries whether they like it or not.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
To strengthen and develop the non-aligned movement steadily is an important guarantee for the accomplishment of the cause of independence in opposition to imperialism.
The non-aligned movement is a powerful independent force of our times which is opposed to imperialism. Only when this movement is strengthened will it be possible to succeed in repelling all forms of imperialist domination and subjugation, aggression and intervention, defend the sovereignty of the non-aligned countries and settle not only the problem of establishing a new international economic order but also all other issues in the international arena in accordance with the aspirations and desire of the peoples of the newly-emergent countries for independence. And it also makes it possible to prevent a nuclear war, defend universal peace and security and give a strong impetus to the cause of national liberation.
It is all the more urgent to strengthen the non-aligned movement in view of the present complex international situation and the blatant moves of the outside forces to make the nonaligned movement deviate from its original principle.
All the non-aligned countries should make strenuous efforts to strengthen and develop the non-aligned movement so that this movement may creditably carry out its important duty to our times and mankind.
First, the non-aligned countries should remain loyal to the ideal and principles of the movement which were confirmed at their previous Summit Conferences. Adhering to the principles and ideal of the non-aligned movement is a fundamental question on which the development of this movement and its future depend.
Independence in the face of imperialism is the basic ideal of the non-aligned movement and it is its fundamental principle to act independently and refrain from joining any bloc. Only when all its member nations hold fast to Chajusong can the movement maintain its intrinsic character, strengthen its power and realize the noble ideal of independence in the face of imperialism. If they fail to maintain Chajusong, the non-aligned movement will inevitably deteriorate.
The non-aligned countries must always stick firmly to Chajusong in all their activities. They must categorically reject all foreign interference and must not follow other countries blindly. They must respect the Chajusong of other countries and refrain from interfering in others’ internal affairs or infringing upon their interests.
They should consistently maintain the basic principle of remaining separate from any bloc and resolutely fight against any attempt to side-track the movement from its original principle and purpose.
All its member nations must advance boldly under the banner of Chajusong and thus contribute actively to the success of the cause of independence in the face of imperialism.
Secondly, the non-aligned countries must uphold and develop the tradition of unity.
Unity is the life and soul of this movement and the source of its power. Without unity, it is impossible to conceive that this movement could exist, nor could we talk about its power. Throughout history, it has been proved: Together we stand, divided we fall.
The non-aligned movement has endeavoured to achieve unity during the 25 years since its inauguration and has fought using its unity as a weapon. As a result, a fine tradition of regarding unity as of utmost importance and subordinating everything to it has been established. The non-aligned countries must preserve and develop this tradition and consolidate the unity and cohesion of the non-aligned movement.
They must make efforts to foster and develop the factors that unite them and get rid of those that divide and must work exclusively towards unity. They must not antagonize or quarrel with each other, duped by the imperialists’ instigation and trickery, but must counter their manoeuvres for division and alienation with the strategy of unity.
The non-aligned countries must refrain from resorting to force against each other or turning disputes into military conflicts. At present, the disputes among these countries are a great obstacle to the unity and cohesion of the non-aligned movement. The non-aligned countries must not allow the disputes between some of them to carry on indefinitely, but take decisive steps to end them.
The disputes between non-aligned countries should be settled peacefully, by the parties concerned, free from foreign interference, through negotiations in the national interests of both sides and in the interests of the non-aligned movement in general based on the principle of unity. The non-aligned countries should not support or oppose either side in the disputes between newly-emergent countries but, from an unbiased point of view, must help the parties concerned in every way to settle the disputes by negotiation.
They should settle every issue arising in the relationships between them on the principles of complete equality, Chajusong, territorial integrity, mutual respect and non-interference in each of her’s affairs. This is the only way that united and cooperative relations between the non-aligned countries can be realistic and durable and that the movement can develop as an integrated force.
Thirdly, new ways of further enhancing the effectiveness and capacity for action of the nonaligned movement should be explored through joint efforts.
Increasing the effectiveness and capacity for action of the non-aligned movement is the current requirement for strengthening and developing this movement. Today the non-aligned movement is expanding on a worldwide scale, cooperation between its member nations is developing in greater depth and complicated issues requiring prompt settlement are arising in succession in international relations. In keeping with this situation, the effectiveness and capacity for action of the non-aligned movement should be increased decisively.
To do so, it is important to adjust the activities of the non-aligned countries effectively, perfect their methods of action and their procedures and build up a proper structure, so as to enable the non-aligned movement to take a more active part in settling international issues.
We are convinced that the 8th Summit Conference of Non-aligned Nations will be a conference of historical significance in solving important problems arising at present in the nonaligned movement and in further strengthening and developing it.
The Government of the DPRK will in the future, too, remain loyal to the principles and ideal of the non-aligned movement and will make every effort to strengthen and develop this movement.