Saturday, September 16, 2006

The Legacy of John Brown: 150 Years Later

150 years since ‘Bloody Kansas’: The legacy of John Brown

By Shelley Ettinger
Published Sep 14, 2006 9:15 AM
Courtesy of Workers World Newspaper

Many historians agree that the Civil War really started on a flat patch of land known as “Bloody Kansas” 150 years ago, in the spring, summer and on into the autumn of 1856.

This area of land covering some 82,000 square miles now sits at the geographic center of the continental United States. It rarely gets national attention these days, and when it does it’s usually for reactionary developments like the effort to ban evolution from the public schools’ science curriculum.

Yet this was once the hub of the most important political conflict of its day, indeed of all U.S. history: the struggle over slavery. This was where diametrically opposed forces—abolitionists and pro-slavers—clashed.

When 1856 began, the pro-slavery forces had looked to be ascendant. Congress had passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act on May 30, 1854. The law provided for popular sovereignty—voting by white male landowners, that is—to decide whether Kansas and Nebraska would be free or slave states. Kansas had since been the scene of a violent terror campaign, based across the border in Missouri.

Death squads, known as Border Ruffians, aimed to kill or drive out those who opposed the spread of slavery to Kansas, and to flood the territory with their own numbers. Jesse and Frank James, glorified as “rebellious” outlaws in the movies and folklore, were the most well-known of these ruffians.

The Border Ruffians hunted down and murdered African Americans who had escaped slavery and were heading north to Canada. They brazenly assassinated Underground Railway station operators and anti-slavery newspaper editors.

It had started to seem like a foregone conclusion that Kansas would enter the union as a slave state. Then John Brown arrived.

With a small, brave band of stalwarts, he took on the slave owners’ death squads in direct combat, and bested them. He revived and rallied the anti-slavery forces.

At the Battle of Osawatomie, on Aug. 30, 1856, his brilliant tactical maneuvers led to the defeat of a pro-slavery force of 300 soldiers by his group of under 20—and from then on he was affectionately known as “Old Osawatomie” by admirers around the country.

In Lawrence, in the first two weeks of September, he led the military defense of the state capital from a pro-slavery assault—and ever after was respectfully called “Captain Brown” by those who fought alongside him.

But before Osawatomie, before Law rence, John Brown had already become a legend. That happened at Pottawatomie Creek.

A daring raid

At Pottawatomie on the night of May 24-25, 1856, John Brown led an armed band in a lightning raid against an encampment where he knew he’d find several of the worst of the Border Ruffians who were terrorizing the territory.

When Brown and company rode off, they left the dead bodies of five racist thugs. The criminals Brown and his band killed had been responsible for many assaults and murders; they were also known for capturing Native women and forcing them into prostitution and sexually assaulting Free State women.

Until Brown acted, the slaveocracy had been waging an undeclared war with what seemed like impunity. And not just in the fields and towns of Kansas. On May 22, two days before Brown rode to Pottawatomie, Preston Brooks, a member of Congress from South Carolina, had strode onto the floor of the U.S. Senate and beaten anti-slavery Sen. Charles Sumner of Massachusetts nearly to death as retaliation for Sumner’s speech “The Crime against Kansas.”

After Pottawatomie, all this changed. The slaveocracy did not surrender—it would take the Civil War for that. But from Pottawatomie word went out.

No longer would the racist death squads have free reign in Kansas. A new force, a force for freedom, was fighting back.

For years afterward, in fact to this very day, bourgeois historians have misrepresented what happened at Pottawatomie. It has been portrayed as an insane, isolated event, a senseless, inexplicable act of violence—and its perpetrator as a wild-eyed, crazed, fanatical maniac. The official bourgeois version removes the Pottawatomie raid from its historic context, the bloody terrorist war the Border Ruffians were waging, and omits the fact that the men Brown’s troops killed were racist murderers.

John Brown was no lunatic. He was a hero. By first frost in the fall of 1856, he had accomplished what six months earlier no one thought possible. The territory had been secured. Kansas would enter the union as a free state.

The victory came at a high personal cost for Brown. His son Frederick died at the Battle of Osawatomie. Another son, John Brown Jr., was captured by the pro-slavery forces and tortured horribly while held prisoner, which led to many years of illness and anguish.

Brown himself was now a wanted man. A price on his head, he went underground, leaving Kansas. He headed toward the Northeast.

There he would spend the next three years raising funds, recruiting troops, writing, speaking and planning. His goal was nothing less than to launch a guerrilla war, whose leadership would be taken up by African Americans, to end slavery and establish full freedom and equality for all.

On to Harpers Ferry

Before, during and after his time in Kansas, John Brown was keen to learn how to wage the kind of guerrilla warfare he believed would be necessary to destroy slavery. To whom did he look as his teachers?

To Nat Turner, Denmark Vesey, and other enslaved African American leaders of U.S. slave revolts; to the Seminole nation that had resisted domination by colonial settlers; to the Maroons of the South and of Jamaica and Surinam, escaped slaves who fought the settler state’s forces in daring raids from bases in the hills and mountains; and to Toussaint L’Ouverture, one of the great liberators of Haiti.

Most well-meaning whites, including abolitionists, were under the sway of racism to varying degrees. In contrast, Brown not only admired but sought to learn from and emulate Black and Native leaders. He was that free of the taint of racism.

In Kansas, Brown worked closely with a Native ally, Ottawa Jones, who sheltered, fed and helped arm Brown’s group at several points during the months of conflict. Although he himself was a fiercely devout Christian, Brown counted Jews and atheists among his troop.

For three years after leaving Kansas, Brown was based in North Elba, N.Y. There he established a cooperative farming community, the first ever where Black and white families lived and worked as equals.

Along with farming and guiding escaped slaves along an Underground Railroad route across the border to Canada, Brown would spend those three years preparing for the action he was determined would give rise to a generalized mass uprising by enslaved Black people. He would write a new constitution for the United States which first and foremost proclaimed race and sex equality.

He would travel to Canada and recruit several African Americans, including Osborne Anderson, who would fight alongside Brown at Harpers Ferry, Va. (now W. Va.), and live to write about it. He would meet often with the great organizer and orator, Frederick Douglass, and the two would become close friends. Douglass had escaped from slavery as a young man.

He would confer with the “Moses” of the Underground Railroad, Harriet Tubman, whom he always respectfully referred to as “Gen. Tubman.” Some believe that Tubman helped plan the raid on the U.S. Army arsenal at Harpers Ferry and would have taken part in it had she not fallen ill.

African American freedom fighters Dangerfield Newby, Lewis S. Leary, John Brown’s sons Watson and Oliver, and six others of their number would die at Harpers Ferry in October 1859. Five would escape and survive. Seven, including John Brown, would be captured and hanged.

Gen. Robert E. Lee, who scant months later would lead the secessionist Confederate army, led the opposing force that captured John Brown at Harpers Ferry. John Wilkes Booth, who would assassinate President Abraham Lincoln in 1865, was among the troops guarding the scaffolding on the day they hanged John Brown.

On that day, Dec. 2, 1859, just before they led him from his cell to the gallows, this great soldier for human liberation would write, “I John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood.” Brown was buried in the majority Black cemetery in North Elba, a fitting tribute indeed.

In April 1861 the Civil War would begin.

Tributes to John Brown

Frederick Douglass called him “that grand old man” and said, “John Brown began the war that ended American slavery and made this a free Republic.”

W.E.B. DuBois wrote a biography of John Brown, published in 1909. He said of him, “John Brown was right.”

Malcolm X said, “If you are for me and my problems—when I say me I mean us, our people—then you have to be willing to do as old John Brown did.”

Eugene Debs called him “the greatest hero of them all.”

Mother Jones said, “Some day not in the far distant future there will come another John Brown and he will tear this nation from end to end if this thing does not stop.”

The nation of Haiti shut down in official mourning when John Brown was hanged. The main street in Port-au-Prince is named John Brown Boulevard.

In January 1860, Karl Marx wrote to Frederick Engels that “the biggest things that are happening in the world today are on the one hand the movement of the slaves in America started by the death of John Brown and, on the other, the movement of the serfs in Russia.”

In 1912, the year before she died, Harriet Tubman called John Brown “my dearest friend.”
PANW Editor's Note: For more information on John Brown log on to the following URL: army.htm
This article is copyright under a Creative Commons License.
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Pan-African News Wire said...

John Brown's Provisional Army

John Brown's band consisted of twenty-one men besides himself daughter Annie and daughter-in-law Martha, Oliver's wife. Of the men there were sixteen white and five colored. Most of the whites were commissioned as officers in his army. Stevens, John Henry Kagi, Cook, Brown's three sons-Oliver, Owen and Watson, Tidd, Leeman, William Thompson and J.G. Anderson were all captains. Hazlett, Edwin Coppoc and Dauphin Thompson were lieutenants. The soldiers were Stewart Taylor, Barclay Coppoc, F.J. Meriam, Shields Green, Lewis Leary, John Copeland, Osborn Anderson and Dangerfield Newby. The eldest of the band after Brown was Newby, aged forty-four, Owen Brown came next, at thirty-five; all the others were under thirty. Oliver Brown, Barclay Coppoc and Leeman were not yet twenty-one. The average age of the twenty-one followers was twenty-five years and five months. Only one was of foreign birth; nearly all were of old American stock.

John Brown was born in Torrington, CT, on May 9,1800. In 1820 he married Dianthe Lusk, who died in 1832, during childbirth. Their marriage produced seven children: John Jr. (b. July 25, 1821); Jason (b. January 19, 1823); Owen (b. November 4,1824); Frederick I (b. January 9,1827, d. March 31,1831); Ruth (b. February 18, 1829); Frederick 11 (b. December 21,1830, d. August 20,1856, at Osawatomie Kansas).

In 1833, John Brown married teenager Mary Ann Day, of Meadville, PA, who bore a total of thirteen children, although only six lived to adulthood. All together, of John Brown's twenty children, only half survived their childhoods, and two more were killed during the raid on Harper's Ferry. John and Mary Ann's children were: Watson (b.?); Salmon (b. October 2,1856); Sarah I (b. 1834, d. 1843); Charles (b. 1837, d. 1843); Oliver (b? ); Peter (b. 1840, d. 1843); Austin (b. 1842, d. 1843); Annie (b. September 23,1843); Sarah (b. September 11, 1846); Ellen I (b.? d. 1848); Ellen 11 (b. September 25,1854); Amelia (b?).

The entire Brown family was involved in abolitionist work, and Brown's surviving sons were among his most trusted lieutenants. Son Frederick died during the Osawatomie raid in 1856. Jason and Salmon did not take part in the assault on Harper's Ferry; the rest of the family did.

John Henry Kagi

John Henry Kagi was the best educated of all the raiders, but was largely self-taught. Many admirably written letters survive as the productions of his pen, in the New York Tribune, the New York Evening Post, and the National Era. He was, moreover, an able man of business, besides being an excellent debater and speaker. He was an expert stenographer and a total abstainer. He was, however, cold in manner, rather coarse of fiber and rough in appearance, and an agnostic. His father was the respected village blacksmith in Bristolviffe, Ohio, whose family was of Swiss descent, the name being originally Kagy. John A. Kagi was born at Bristolville, Trumbell county, Ohio, March 15, 1835; and was killed October 17, 1859. In 1854-55 he taught school at Hawkinstown, Virginia, where he obtained a personal knowledge of slavery. This resulted in such abolition manifestations on his part, that he was compelled to leave for Ohio under a pledge never to return to Hawkinstown. Kagi then went to Nebraska City, Nebraska, where he was admitted to the bar. He next entered Kansas with one of General James H. Lane's parties. He enlisted in A. D. Stevens's ("Colonel Whipple's") Second Kansas Militia, and was captured in 1856 by United States troops. Kagi was imprisoned first at Lecompton and then at Tecumseh, but was finally liberated. He was assaulted and severely injured by Judge Elmore, the pro-slavery judge, who struck him over the head with a gold-headed cane, on January 31, 1857. Kagi drew his revolver and shot the judge in the groin. Elmore then fired three times and shot Kagi over the heart, the bullet being stopped by a memorandum-book. Kagi was long in recovering from his wounds.

After a visit to his Ohio home he returned to Kansas and joined John Brown. He bore the title of Secretary of War in the provisional government, next in command to John Brown; was also the adjutant. When in Chambersburg as agent for the raiders, he boarded with Mrs. Mary Rittner.


Francis Jackson Merriam

Francis Jackson Meriam was born November 17, 1837, at Framingham, Massachusetts, into an abolitionist family. Meriam came to Kansas, but seems to have borne little part in the struggle here, as he did not arrive before 1858. Was ardent in his desire to fight slavery, and solicited service under John Brown. Was educated; had some money. Escaped from Harper's Ferry after the attack. He was in Boston, coming from Canada on the day of John Brown's execution, but was finally induced by friends to go back to Canada, and afterwards settled in Illinois, and enlisted in the Union army.

He died suddenly November 28, 1865, in New York City, after having served as a captain in the Third South Carolina Colored Infantry. Erratic and unbalanced, he was forever urging wild schemes upon his superiors, and often attempting them. In an engagement under Grant he was severely wounded in the leg. Early in the war he married Minerva Caldwell, of Galena, Illinois.


John E. Cook

John E. Cook, who could successfully have escaped had he not, against the advice of his comrades, been reckless in his search for food, was born in the summer of 1830, in Haddam, Connecticut. He was of a well-to- do family, and studied law in Brooklyn and New York. Five feet and seven inches in height, handsome, quick in movement, he was an incessant talker, blue-eyed, and had curly blonde hair. A devoted follower of Brown, though considered indiscreet. He went to Kansas in 1855. His movements from the time of his first meeting with Brown, just after the battle of Black Jack, in June, 1856, until after his capture, are set forth in his " Confession" made while in jail (published at Charlestown as a pamphlet in the middle of November, 1859, for the benefit of Samuel C. Young, who was crippled for life in the fighting at Harper's Ferry). For this confession Cook was severely censured at the time by the friends of Brown; he was even called the "Judas" of the raid.

Cook was the one man who believed that it was best to attack the town of Harper's Ferry, and therefore was sent to that town over a year in advance of others, and lived in the city. He is described variously as a school-teacher or a lock-tender, although in the registration of his marriage to Mary V. Kennedy, of Harper's Ferry, April 18, 1859, he was described as a book-agent. He passed much of his time in gathering information about slaves, and was perhaps in communication with them, although this is denied by the family of Brown. it is reasonable to believe that he had found that the slaves would not rise at the first appearance of Brown, though he believed they would flock to the standard when the blow had been struck.

He was captured eight miles from Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, October 25,1859, and hanged on December 16. He was a remarkably fine shot, and had seen much fighting in Kansas. He was reckless, impulsive, indiscreet, but genial, generous and brave.


Charles Plummer Tidd

Charles Plummer Tidd, known as Charles Plummer, was a captain in Brown's army. He was born in Palermo, Maine, in 1834, and changed his name after the raid in order to avoid possible arrest and trial as a Harper's Ferry raider -a precaution of greater importance when he entered the army in 1861.

He emigrated to Kansas with the party of Dr. Calvin Cutter, of Worcester, in 1856. He joined John Brown's party at Tabor, in 1857, and thereafter, in Canada and elsewhere, was one of Brown's closest associates, returning to Kansas in 1858 as a follower of "Shubel Morgan." He took part in the raid into Missouri. He and Cook were particularly warm friends. Tidd opposed the attack on Harper's Ferry. After his escape from Virginia, he visited Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Canada, and was freely consulted in the plans for rescue of Stevens and Hazlett. "Tidd," wrote Mrs. Annie Brown Adams, "had not much education, but good common sense. After the raid he began to study, and tried to repair his deficiencies. He was by no means handsome. He had a quick temper, but was kind-hearted. His rages soon passed and then he tried all he could to repair damages. He was a fine singer and of strong family affections."

He died of fever, on the transport Northerner, as a first sergeant of the Twenty-first Massachusetts Volunteers, on February 8,1862, of the battle of Roanoke Island in his ears. This he had particularly wished to take part in, for ex-Governor Henry A. Wise was in command of the Confederates, his son, 0. Jennings Wise, being killed in the engagement. Tidd had enlisted July 19, 1861, as a private. His grave is No. 40 in the New Berne, N. C., National Cemetery.


Jeremiah Goldsmith Anderson

Jeremiah Goldsmith Anderson, one of Brown's lieutenants, was born April 17, 1833, in Indiana, and was therefore in his twenty-seventh year when killed at Harper's Ferry. He was the son of John Anderson, and was grandson of slaveholders; his maternal grandfather, Colonel Jacob Westfall, of Tygert Valley, Virginia, was a tier in the Revolutionary War and a slaveholder.

Anderson went to school at Galesburg, Illinois, and Kossuth, Iowa; he worked as a peddler, farmer, and employee of a saw-mill, before emigrating to Kansas in August, 1857, where he settled on the Little Osage, Bourbon County, a mile from Fort Bain. He was twice arrested by pro- slaveryites, and for ten weeks imprisoned at Fort Scott; he then became a lieutenant of Captain Montgomery, and was with him in the attack on Captain Anderson's troop of the First U. S. Cavalry. He also witnessed the murder on his own doorstep of a Mr. Denton by Border Ruffians. He was with John Brown on the slave raid into Missouri, and thereafter followed Brown's fortunes. Writing July 5, 1859, of his determination to continue to fight for freedom, he said:" lions of fellow-beings require it of us; their cries for help go out to the universe daily and hourly. Whose y is it to help them? Is it yours? Is it mine? It is every man's, but how few there are to help. But there are a few who dare to answer this call and dare to answer it in a manner that will make this land of liberty and equality shake to the center."

Anderson was killed at Harper's Ferry by a bayonet-thrust of one of the marines. "One of the prisoners described Anderson as turning completely over against the wall [to which he was pinned by the bayonet] in his dying agony. He lived a short time, stretched on the brick walk without, where he was subjected to savage brutalities, being kicked in body and face, while one brute of an armed farmer spat a huge quid of tobacco from vile jaws into the mouth of the dying man, which he first forced open."

Albert Hazlet

Albert Hazlett, a lieutenant, was born in Pennsylvania, September 21, 1837 and was executed March 16, 1860. George B. Gill says, "I was acquainted with Hazlett well enough in Kansas, yet after all knew but little of him. He was with Montgomery considerably, and was with Stevens on the raid in which Cruise was killed. He was a good- sized, fine-looking fellow, overflowing with good nature and social feelings.... Brown got acquainted with just before leaving Kansas." Before the raid he worked on his brother's farm in western Pennsylvania, joining the others at Kennedy Farm in the early part of September, 1859.He was arrested in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, near Chambersburg, under the name of William Harrison, on October 22, extradited to Virginia, tried and sentenced at the spring term of the Court, and hanged on March 16, 1860. To Mrs. Rebecca Spring he wrote on March 15, 1860, the eve of his execution, "Your letter gave me great comfort to know that my body would be taken from this land of chains.... I am willing to die in the cause of liberty, if I had ten thousand lives I would willingly lay them all down for the same cause."


Edwin Coppoc

Edwin Coppoc, brother of Barclay, was captured with Brown in the engine house, tried immediately after him, sentenced on November 2, and hung with Cook on December 16, 1859. The father of the Coppocs died when Edwin was six, the latter having been born June 30, 1835. For nine years thereafter Edwin lived with John Butler, a farmer, near Salem, Ohio, removing then with his mother to Springdale, Iowa. This place he left in the spring of 1858, to become a settler in Kansas. He took no part in the Territorial troubles, and returned to Springdale in the autumn of 1858 when he became acquainted with Brown. He always bore an excellent reputation as an honest, brave, straightforward, well- behaved man, and his death was particularly lamented by many friends. An exemplary prisoner, there were many Southerners who hoped for his pardon. He was buried first in Winona [later in Salem Ohio], after a public funeral, attended by the entire town. In jail he regretted his situation, wrote his mother of his sorrow that he must die a dishonorable death, and explained that he had not understood what the full consequences of the raid would be.


Barclay Coppoc

Barclay Coppoc, Edwin's brother, was born at Salem, Ohio, January 4,1839, and had not attained his majority at the time of the raid. He escaped from Harper's Ferry, but only to meet a tragic fate in that he was killed by the fall of a train into the Platte river from a trestle forty feet high, the supports of which had been burned away by Confederates. Coppoc was then a first lieutenant in the Third Kansas Infantry, Colonel Montgomery's regiment, having received his commission July 24,1861.

Barclay Coppoc went straight to Iowa after his escape from Harper's Ferry, whither Virginia agents followed to attempt his arrest. He went back to Kansas in 1860, helped to run off some Missouri slaves, and nearly lost his life in a second undertaking of this kind. He would have made his mark. By his exertions the sale of liquor was stopped at North Elba."

Watson Brown

Watson Brown, born at Franklin, Ohio, October 7,1835, married Isabella M. Thompson in September 1856, and died of his wounds at Harper's Ferry on October 18,1859. He was: "Tall and rather fair, with finely knit frame, athletic and active." Of little education, he was a man of marked ability and sterling character, who bore well the family responsibilities, which fell to him when all the other men of the clan went to Kansas. His son lived only to his fifth year; his widow later married her husband's cousin, Salmon Brown.


Annie Brown

Anne (Annie) Brown (1843-1926) was born in Richfield, Ohio. Annie spent time at the Kennedy Farm, before the raid on Harpers Ferry, cooking for the raiders. She moved to California in 1864 with her mother and married Samuel Adams in Red Bluff in 1869. They settled in Humboldt County where she died in 1926. She is buried in Shively, California.

Oliver Brown

Oliver Brown, Captain. Oliver was the youngest son of John Brown to reach adulthood. He was born in Franklin, OH March 9,1839, and married Martha E. Brewster in 1858. Oliver traveled to Kansas with his father and was involved in the warfare there. He died of wounds received during the raid on Harpers Ferry and was buried on the banks of the Shenandoah River. His remains were exhumed along with those of the Other raiders and reinterred in North Elba in 1899.

Martha Brown [wife of Oliver Brown]

Arron Dwight Stevens

Aaron Dwight Stevens, was in many ways the most interesting and attractive of the personalities gathered around John Brown. Born in Lisbon, New London county, Connecticut, March 15,1831, he ran away from home at the age of sixteen, in 1847, and enlisted in a Massachusetts volunteer regiment, in which he served in Mexico during the Mexican War. Later, he enlisted in Company F of the First United States Dragoons, and was tried for mutiny, engaging in a drunken riot, and assaulting Major George A. H. Blake of his regiment," at Taos, New Mexico, in May, 1855. Stevens was sentenced to death, but this was commuted by President Pierce to imprisonment for three years at hard labor at Fort Leavenworth, from which post he escaped and joined the Free State forces. In these he became colonel of the Second Kansas Militia, under the name of Whipple. He met John Brown August 7, 1856, at the Nebraska line, when Lane's Army of the North marched into Kansas and became one of Brown's bravest and most devoted followers.

The never-married Stevens came of old Puritan stock, his great-grandfather having been a captain in the Revolutionary army. He was a man of superb bravery and of wonderful physique; he was well over six feet, was blessed with a great sense of humor, and was sustained at the end by his belief in spiritualism. George B. Gill wrote of him in 1860: "Stevens--how gloriously he sang! His was the noblest soul I ever knew. Though owing to his rash, hasty way, I often found occasion to quarrel with him more so than with any of the others, and though I liked Kagi better than any man I ever knew, our temperaments being adapted to each other, yet I can truly say that Stevens was the most noble man that I ever knew." George H. Hoyt, Brown's counsel, in a letter to j W Le Barnes, October 31, 1859, thus recorded his first impression of Stevens at Harper's Ferry: "Stevens is in the same cell with Brown. I have frequent talks with him. He's in a most pitiable condition physically, his wounds being of the most painful and dangerous character. He has now four balls in his body, two of these being about the head and neck. He bears his sufferings with grim and silent fortitude, never complaining and absolutely without hope. He is a splendid looking young fellow. Such black and penetrating eyes! Such an expansive brow! Such a grand chest and limbs! He was the best, and in fact the only man Brown had who was a good soldier besides being reliable otherwise." Stevens was executed March 16 1860.
Stewart Taylor

Stewart Taylor, the only one of the raiders not of American birth, was but twenty-three when killed, having been born October 29,1836, at Uxbridge, Canada. Of American descent, and a wagon maker by trade, he went to Iowa in 1853, where in 1858 he became acquainted with John Brown through George B. Gill. He is described as being "heart and soul in the anti-slavery cause. An excellent debater and very fond of studying history. He stayed at home, in Canada, for the winter of 1858-59, and then went to Chicago, thence to Bloomington, Illinois, and thence to Harper's Ferry. He was a very good phonographer [stenographer], rapid and accurate. He was overcome with distress when, getting out of communication with the John Brown movement, he thought for a time that he was to be left out." - Letter of Jacob L. Taylor, Pine Orchard, Canada West, April 23, 1860, to Richard J. Hinton,-in Hinton Papers, Kansas Historical Society. Taylor was a spiritualist.


Shields Green

Shields Green, Fugitive slave from Charleston, S. C. Joined Brown at Chambersburg, having come there with Frederick Douglass, August 19th; was known as the "Emperor," but how he obtained this name is not now known. He went on with Brown when Douglass turned back, telling his former benefactor "I believe I'll go with the old man." Green's age is said to have been twenty-three years.


William Thompson

William Thompson, son of Roswell Thompson; born in New Hampshire, in August, 1833. Married in the fall of 1858 to Mary Brown, who was not related to the family of John Brown. His sister Isabel was married to Watson Brown; and Henry Thompson, his elder brother, was married to Ruth, the daughter of John Brown. He had started for Kansas in 1856, but turned back after meeting the Brown sons, and returned with them to North Elba.

Lewis Leary

Lewis Sheridan Leary, colored, left a wife and a six months old child at Oberlin, to go to Harper's Ferry. Said to have been the first Oberlin recruit to Brown's army. Was furnished money to go from Oberlin to Chambersburg,
and accompanied John A. Copeland to that town. Was killed at Harper's Ferry.

Leary's child was subsequently educated by James Redpath and Wendell Phillips. Leary was descended from an Irishman, Jeremiah O'Leary, who fought in the Revolution under General Nathanael Greene, and married a woman of mixed blood, partly African, partly of that Croatan Indian stock of North Carolina, which is believed by some to be lineally descended from the "lost colonists " left by John White on Roanoke Island in 1587. Leary, like his father, was a saddler and harness-maker. In 1857 he went to Oberlin to live, marrying there, and making the acquaintance of John Brown in Cleveland. He survived his terrible wounds for eight hours, during which he was well treated and able to send messages to his family. He is reported as saying: "I am ready to die." His wife was in ignorance of his object when he left home. Leary was born at Fayetteville, North Carolina, March 17, 1835, and was therefore in his twenty-fifth year when killed.

William H Leeman

William H. Leeman, born March 20,1839, and killed on October 17,1859, the youngest of the raiders, had early left his home in Maine, being of a rather wild disposition. Owen Brown found him hard to control at Springdale. Mrs. Annie Brown Adams writes of him: "He was only a boy. He smoked a good deal and drank sometimes; but perhaps people would not think that so very wicked now. He was very handsome and very attractive." Educated in the public schools of Saco and Hallowell, Maine, he worked in a shoe-factory in Haverhill, Massachusetts, at the age of fourteen. In 1856 he entered Kansas with the second Massachusetts colony of that year, and became a member of John Brown's "Volunteer Regulars" September 9, 1856. He fought well at Osawatomie, when but seventeen years old. George B. Gill says of him that he had "a good intellect with great ingenuity."

Dangerfield Newby

Dangerfield Newby, African American, was born a slave in 1815, in Fauquier County, Virginia. His father, a Scotchman, freed his mulatto children. Newby's wife, from whom he received touching letters, was the slave of Jesse Jennings, of Arlington [Warrenton?], Virginia. She and her children were "sold south" to Louisiana after the raid; conflicting reports have her either remaining there or ultimately moving to Ohio. The shot that gave to Newby his death-wound cut his throat from ear to ear, the missile being a six-inch spike in lieu of a bullet. Newby was six feet two inches tall, a splendid physical specimen, of light color.

John A. Copland Jr.

John Anthony Copeland, Jr., a free black, was born at Raleigh, North Carolina, August 15, 1834, and executed at Charlestown, December 16, 1859. His parents removed to Oberlin, Ohio, in 1842. He was for some time a student in the preparatory department of Oberlin College, and was enlisted for John Brown in September, 1859, by Lewis Sheridan Leary, his uncle, who was at that time also residing at Oberlin. He was one of the thirty- seven men concerned in the famous Oberlin rescue of a fugitive slave, John Price, for which he was for some time imprisoned at Cleveland.

"Copeland," Judge Parker stated in his story of the trials (St. Louis Globe Democrat, April 8, 1888), "was the prisoner who impressed me best. He was a free Negro. He had been educated, and there was a dignity about him that I could not help liking. He was always mardy." Andrew Hunter at the same time was quoted as saying- "Copeland was the cleverest of all the prisoners ... and behaved better than any of them. If I had had the power and could have concluded to pardon any man among them, he was the man I would have picked out." On November 26, from his cell in Charlestown, Copeland sent a letter to his parents, now in the possession of his sister Miss Mary Copeland, of Oberlin, Ohio, of which the following is an extract:

"DEAR PARENTS, - my fate as far as man can seal it is sealed but let this not occasion you any misery for remember the cause in which I was engaged, remember that it was a 'Holy Cause, ' one in which men who in every point of vew better than I am have suffered and died, remember that if I must die I die in trying to liberate a few of my poor and oppress people from my condition of serveatud which God in his Holy Writ has hurled his most bitter denunciations against and in which men who were by the color of their faces removed from the direct injurious affect, have already lost their lives and still more remain to meet the same fate which has been by man decided that I must meet."
Osborn Perry Anderson

Osborn Perry Anderson, one of Brown's African-American followers, survived the raid to die of consumption at Washington, D. C., December 13,1872. Born free, July 27,1830, at West Fallowfield, Pennsylvania, he was in his thirtieth year at the time of the raid, of which and of his escape he left a record in "A Voice from Harper's Ferry." He learned the printing trade in Canada, where he met John Brown in 1858. After his escape he returned to Canada. During the Civil War, in 1864, he enlisted, became a non- commissioned officer, and was mustered out at the close of the war in Washington.

Dauphin Thompson

Dauphin Adolphus Thompson, brother of William Thompson, and one of Brown's lieutenants, and a North Elba neighbor of the Brown family. Was born April 17, 1838. He was "very quiet, with fair, thoughtful face, curly blonde hair, and baby-blue eyes." His sister Isabel was married to Watson Brown; and Henry Thompson, his elder brother, was married to Ruth, the daughter of John Brown. Slain at Harper's Ferry.

-----------------------------------Owen Brown

Owen Brown, born November 4,1824, at Hudson, Ohio, was John Brown's third son, and his stalwart, reliable lieutenant both in Kansas and at Harper's Ferry. It was due largely to his unfaltering determination and great physical strength that the little group of survivors of which he was the leader reached safe havens. After the war he was for some time a grape-grower in Ohio, in association with two of his brothers. Thence he removed to California, where he died, January 9, 1891, in his mountain home, "Brown's Peak," near Pasadena, poor in worldly goods, but with the respect and regard of his neighbors. A marble monument marks his mountainside grave. He never married. He was, like all the Browns, original in expression and in thought, and not without considerable humor. He was the only one of the five men who escaped from the raid who did not enter the Union army, and he was the last of the raiders.